Novice

Chickasaw Head

Chickasaw Head


Mitologija čokolade

Mitologija čokolade je del kulture Choctawa, indijanskega plemena, ki je prvotno zasedalo veliko ozemlje v današnjih jugovzhodnih Združenih državah: večino držav Mississippi, Alabama in Louisiana. V 19. stoletju so bili Choctaw evropskim Američanom znani kot eno izmed "petih civiliziranih plemen".

Danes imajo Choctaw tri zvezno priznana plemena: največje je narod Choctaw iz Oklahome, naslednja je skupina indijancev Choctaw Mississippi, ki jo sestavljajo potomci posameznikov, ki se v 1830 -ih letih niso odstranili, najmanjša pa je skupina Jena iz Choctawa Indijanci, ki se nahajajo v Louisiani. Poleg tega je Alabama državno priznala bend MOWA Indijancev Choctaw, ki pa zveznega priznanja ni dosegla. Tudi to sestavljajo potomci posameznikov, ki so v 1830 -ih letih ostali na jugovzhodu.

Choctaw in njihovi predniki živijo v regiji Mississippi približno 4000 do 8000 let. Na tisoče let ustvarjanja mitov in zgodb je prispevalo k bogati zbirki zgodovine, ki sega skozi stoletja. Choctaw še naprej pripoveduje in piše o svojih legendah na tako imenovanem ameriškem globokem jugu.


Vsebina

Pet "civiliziranih" plemen je bilo avtohtono prebivalstvo Amerike, ki je živelo na jugovzhodu ZDA. Večina je bila potomcev tega, kar se danes imenuje misisipijska kultura, agrarna kultura, ki je pridelovala koruzo in fižol z dednimi verskimi in političnimi elitami. Misisipijska kultura je cvetela na današnjem Srednjem zahodu, Vzhodu in jugovzhodu ZDA od leta 800 do 1500. Pred evropskim stikom so bila ta plemena na splošno matrilinearne družbe. Kmetijstvo je bilo glavna gospodarska dejavnost. Večina plemen je živela v mestih (nekatera pokrivajo stotine hektarjev in so poseljena s tisoči ljudi). Te skupnosti so svoj prostor uredile z načrtovanimi ulicami, razdeljenimi na stanovanjske in javne površine. Njihov vladni sistem je bil deden. Poglavarstva so bila različnih velikosti in kompleksnosti, z visoko stopnjo vojaške organiziranosti. [5]

George Washington in Henry Knox sta izvajala politiko kulturne preobrazbe v odnosu do Indijancev. Cherokee in Choctaw sta si nagibala k sprejetju in prilagajanju določenih kulturnih vidikov zveze kolonij. V času razglasitve neodvisnosti se je kultura ZDA kot naroda sama pojavila. Številne kulturne prakse, ki si jih je prisvojilo Pet plemen, so se jim zdele koristne. [6]

V začetku 19. stoletja je ameriška vlada sprožila premestitev obstoječih družb, ki živijo vzhodno od reke Mississippi, vključno s Petimi plemeni, v dežele zahodno od reke. Ta zvezno zakonsko urejena pobuda za razseljevanje, poimenovana Indijska odstranitev, je v več desetletjih prisilila precejšnje število petih plemen na indijsko ozemlje v druge dele severnoameriške celine, od katerih so številni pozneje postali oklahomsko ozemlje. Najbolj razvpita odstranitev je bila Cherokee Trail of Tears iz leta 1838, ko je predsednik Martin Van Buren uveljavil sporno pogodbo New Echota z narodom Cherokee.

Med ameriško državljansko vojno je bila politika petih plemen različna. Choctaw in Chickasaw sta se borila pretežno ob konfederacijah, medtem ko so se Seminole borili ob Uniji. Cherokee so v svoji državi vodili državljansko vojno med večinskimi konfederati in manjšinskimi taborišči, naklonjenimi Uniji. Kljub poskusom, da ostanejo nevtralni, so sile Konfederacije v prvih treh bitkah na indijskem ozemlju napadle Creek. Creeks so se na koncu borili tako za Unijo kot za Konfederacijo. [7] Kot element pri obnovi po državljanski vojni so bile podpisane nove pogodbe o obnovi z domorodnimi narodi, ki so sklenile pogodbe s konfederacijskimi državami Amerike.

Ko so bila plemena preseljena na indijsko ozemlje, je vlada Združenih držav obljubila, da njihova dežela ne bo naseljena. Nekateri naseljenci so to nekaznovano kršili, še pred letom 1893, ko je vlada odprla "Cherokee Strip" zunaj naselja v Oklahoma Land Run. Leta 1907 sta se Oklahoma in Indijsko ozemlje združila v zvezno državo Oklahoma. V primerjavi z drugimi državami je vseh pet plemen danes v velikem številu zastopanih v populaciji Oklahome.

Poskus "civiliziranja" Edit

Washington je razglasil doktrino, ki je trdila, da so bili ameriški Indijanci biološko enaki, vendar da je njihova družba manjvredna. Oblikoval in izvajal je politiko za spodbujanje »civilizacijskega« procesa, ki ga je nadaljeval Thomas Jefferson. [8] Znani zgodovinar Andrewa Jacksona Robert Remini je zapisal, "da so domnevali, da bodo Indijanci, ko bodo sprejeli prakso zasebne lastnine, zgradili domove, kmetovali, izobraževali svoje otroke in sprejeli krščanstvo, pridobili priznanje belih Američanov. [8 ] Washingtonov načrt v šestih točkah je vključeval nepristransko pravičnost do Indijancev, reguliran nakup indijskih dežel, pospeševanje trgovine, pospeševanje poskusov civilizirati ali izboljšati predsedniško oblast indijske družbe darila in kaznovanje tistih, ki so kršili indijske pravice. [9] Vlada je imenovala agente, kot je Benjamin Hawkins, da živijo med Indijanci in jih z zgledom in navodili spodbujajo, da živijo kot belci. [6] Plemena na jugovzhodu so pri ustanavljanju šol sprejela politiko Washingtona, prevzela jomansko prakso kmetovanja, spreobrnila se v krščanstvo in zgradila domove, podobne tistim svojih kolonialnih sosedov. [9]

Kako drugačen bi bil občutek filozofskega uma, ki bi odražal, da namesto da bi iztrebili del človeške rase z našimi načini prebivalstva, ki smo jih vztrajali v vseh težavah in nazadnje predali svoje znanje o kultiviranju in umetnosti, Aboriginom dežele, v kateri se je ohranil in razširil vir prihodnjega življenja in sreče. Zdelo pa se je, da je nemogoče civilizirati Indijance iz Severne Amerike - to mnenje je verjetno bolj priročno kot samo.

Urejanje Cherokeeja

Cherokee, ( / ˈ tʃ ɛ r ə k iː / Cherokee: ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, romanizirano: Aniyvwiyaʔi) so prebivalci jugovzhodne ZDA, predvsem gorske Gruzije, Severne Karoline in Južne Karoline. Govorijo irokezijski jezik. V 19. stoletju so zgodovinarji in etnografi zapisali njihovo ustno izročilo, ki je pripovedovalo o tem, da se je pleme v starih časih preselilo na jug iz območja Velikih jezer, kjer so bili tudi drugi narodi, ki govorijo irokezijsko. [11]

Od treh zvezno priznanih plemen Cherokee imata narod Cherokee in Združena skupina Keetoowah Band Indijancev Cherokee (UKB) sedež v Tahlequahu v Oklahomi. UKB so večinoma potomci "starih naseljencev", Cherokeejev, ki so se okoli leta 1817 preselili v Arkansas in Oklahomo. Sorodni so Cherokeejem, ki so jih tam v 1830 -ih prisilno preselili po indijskem zakonu o odstranitvi. Vzhodna skupina indijancev Cherokee je na meji Qualla v zahodni Severni Karolini in so potomci tistih, ki so se uprli ali se izognili selitvi. [12] Poleg tega po Združenih državah obstajajo številne skupine dediščine Cherokeeja, na primer satelitske skupnosti, ki jih sponzorira Cherokee Nation. Pleme Cherokee je največje pleme v državi s 729.533 člani. [13]

Chickasaw Edit

Chickasaw so indijski prebivalci Združenih držav Amerike, ki so prvotno prebivali ob reki Tennessee in drugih delih Tennesseeja, zahodno od današnjega Huntsvillea v Alabami, v delih Mississippija in na jugozahodni strani Kentuckyja. Govorili so nekaj francoščine in nekaj angleščine. Nekateri zgodovinarji pripisujejo poseg Chickasaws v francosko in indijsko vojno na strani Britancev kot odločilen pri zagotavljanju, da so ZDA postale angleško govoreči narod. [14] Chickasaw, ki izvira bolj zahodno, se je preselil vzhodno od reke Mississippi že dolgo pred evropskim stikom. Vsi zgodovinski zapisi kažejo, da so Chickasaw od prvega evropskega stika živeli v severovzhodnem Mississippiju, dokler niso bili prisiljeni preseliti se v Oklahomo, kjer večina zdaj živi. Sorodni so Choctawom, ki govorijo podoben jezik, oba tvorita zahodno skupino muskogejskih jezikov. "Chickasaw" je angleški pravopis Chikasha (Izgovorjava muskogee: [tʃikaʃːa]), kar pomeni "upornik" ali "prihaja iz Chicse". Chickasaw so razdeljene v dve skupini: "Impsaktea" in "Intcutwalipa". Chickasaws so bili eno od "petih civiliziranih plemen", ki so odšli na indijsko ozemlje v času odstranitve Indijancev. Za razliko od drugih plemen, ki so zamenjala zemljiške podpore, so Chickasaw od ZDA prejeli finančno nadomestilo za svoja dežela vzhodno od reke Mississippi. [15] Chickasaw Nation je trinajsto največje zvezno priznano pleme v Združenih državah. Chickasaws so na indijskem ozemlju zgradili nekaj prvih bank, šol in podjetij. Prav tako so med državljansko vojno podpisali pogodbo z južnimi ZDA in pripeljali čete v boj za konfederate. [16]

Urejanje s čokolado

The Choctaw so Indijanci, ki izvirajo iz jugovzhodnih ZDA (Mississippi, Alabama in v manjši meri Louisiana). Ko so bili prisiljeni preseliti na indijsko ozemlje, je bilo okoli 20.000 pripadnikov tega plemena. Mnogi med njimi niso preživeli. [17] Pripadajo muskogejski jezikovni skupini. Beseda Choctaw (prikazano tudi kot Chahta, Chato, Tchakta, in Čokolada) je verjetno korupcija Špancev chato, kar pomeni sploščeno, v aluziji na plemensko navado sploščevanja glav dojenčkov. [18] [19] Znani antropolog John Swanton pa nakazuje, da je ime pripadalo voditelju Choctawa. [20] Izvirajo iz ljudi misisipske kulture, ki se je nahajala po dolini reke Mississippi. Zgodovinar Walter Lee Williams je zgodnje španske raziskovalce naletel na svoje prednike. [21] Čeprav se manjše skupine Choctaw nahajajo v južni regiji, sta narod Choctaw iz Oklahome in Mississippi Band indijancev Choctaw dve primarni asociaciji Choctaw. To pleme je bilo pretežno kmetje (kot je bila takrat večina Indijancev), dokler niso bili odstranjeni s svoje zemlje. Od poti solz so se močno povečale in trenutno jih je približno 231.000, zaradi česar je Choctaw tretje največje domorodno prebivalstvo v Združenih državah. Glavno mesto naroda Choctaw se trenutno nahaja v Tuskahomi v Oklahomi. [22]

Urejanje potoka

Creek ali Muscogee izvirajo iz Gruzije, Floride, Južne Karoline in Alabame. [23] Tam so prebivali od približno leta 1500 našega štetja, dokler jih ameriška vlada v začetku 19. stoletja ni prisilno preselila. Mvskoke je njihovo ime v tradicionalnem črkovanju. Pleme Muscogee Creek ni bilo eno pleme, ampak skupina več, od katerih je vsaka imela svojo posebno deželo. Od leta 1836 jih je ameriška vlada prisilila, da skupaj z drugimi civiliziranimi plemeni potujejo zahodno od Mississippija na "indijsko ozemlje". Približno 20.000 članov skupine Muscogee je bilo prisiljenih hoditi po poti solz, enako kot Choctaws. [7] Sodobni Muscogee živi predvsem v Oklahomi, Alabami, Gruziji in na Floridi. Njihov jezik, Mvskoke, je član veje Creek v družini muskogejskih jezikov. Seminole so sorodne Muscogeeju in govorijo tudi jezik Creek.

Seminole Edit

Seminole so Indijanci, prvotno iz Floride, zdaj pa prebivajo na Floridi in Oklahomi. Narod Seminole je nastal v 18. stoletju in so ga sestavljali odpadniki in izgnanci Indijanci iz Gruzije, Mississippija in Alabame, najpomembneje iz naroda Creek, pa tudi Afroameričani, ki so pobegnili iz suženjstva v Južni Karolini in Gruziji. Medtem ko je bilo približno 3000 seminolov prisiljenih zahodno od reke Mississippi, vključno z narodom seminolov iz Oklahome, ki je na poti pobralo nove člane, je približno 300 do 500 seminolov ostalo in se borilo v Evergladesu in okoli njega. V seriji vojn Združenih držav proti Seminolom na Floridi je umrlo približno 1500 ameriških vojakov. Seminoli se nikoli niso predali ameriški vladi, zato se Seminoli iz Floride imenujejo "Neosvojeni ljudje". [24] [25] Federativno priznana plemena seminolov danes vključujejo narod seminolov iz Oklahome in pleme seminolov iz Floride. Približno dvajset let po selitvi na indijsko ozemlje (Oklahoma) so seminoli zavrnili življenje s plemenom Muscogee Creek ali pod njihovo vlado, dokler niso končno dosegli sporazuma z vlado, da bi podpisali pogodbo in živeli z njimi. Seminoli so med državljansko vojno favorizirali sever in ostali zvesto uniji ter se preselili proti severu v Kansas. [26]

Izraz "civiliziran" se je v zgodovini uporabljal za razlikovanje petih plemen od drugih indijanskih skupin, ki so jih prej pogosto imenovali "divji" ali "divji". [27] [28] Besedila, ki so jih napisali tujerodni učenjaki in pisatelji, so z besedami, kot sta "divjak" in "divji", označevala indijske skupine, ki so po stiku z Evropo ohranile svoje tradicionalne kulturne prakse. Zaradi razvijajočega se odnosa do etnocentrične rabe besed in strožjih etnografskih standardov se izraz "pet civiliziranih plemen" v sodobnih akademskih publikacijah redko uporablja. [29]

Belec je besedo "civiliziran" uporabil za označevanje petih plemen, ki so v 18. in zgodnjem 19. stoletju aktivno vključevala anglo-ameriške običaje v svoje kulture. [30] Sociologe, antropologe in interdisciplinarne učenjake zanima tudi, kako in zakaj so ta domorodna ljudstva asimilirala nekatere značilnosti tujerodne kulture belih naseljencev, ki so posegali v njihova dežela. Zgodovinar Steve Brandon trdi, da je bila ta "prilagoditev in vključitev vidikov bele kulture" taktika, ki so jo uporabili narodi petih narodov, da bi se uprli odstranitvi s svojih dežel. Medtem ko je bil izraz "pet civiliziranih plemen" institucionaliziran v politiki zvezne vlade do te mere, da je ameriški kongres sprejel zakone z uporabo tega imena, jih pet formalno manj sprejemajo v formalnih zadevah, nekateri člani pa so izjavili, da združevanje različna ljudstva pod to oznako so dejansko druga oblika kolonizacije in nadzora bele družbe. [31] Drugi sodobni znanstveniki so predlagali, da so sami koncept "civilizacije" ponotranjili posamezniki, ki so pripadali petim narodom [32] [29], a ker je bil večina domorodne severnoameriške zgodovine posredovana z ustnim izročilom, malo znanstvenikom za potrditev tega so bile opravljene raziskave.

V današnjih komentarjih o domorodnih kulturah je izraz "civiliziran" sporen in se v akademski literaturi ne uporablja pogosto. Nekateri komentatorji, vključno z indijsko aktivistko Vine Deloria Jr., so trdili, da je to ponižujoče in pomeni, da so bili avtohtoni prebivalci severnoameriške celine pred stikom z navadami, običaji in prepričanjem angloameriških naseljencev "necivilizirani". Izraz temelji na predpostavki, da imajo različni narodi objektivne "stopnje" civilizacije, ki jih je mogoče oceniti, in postavlja vprašanje, katere lastnosti opredeljujejo "civilizacijo". Zato velja za sodbeni izraz, katerega pomen je odvisen od pogleda uporabnika, zato se mu je najbolje izogniti. [33] [34]


Vsebina

Razvoj H-19 je zasebno začel Sikorsky brez vladnega sponzorstva. Helikopter je bil sprva zasnovan kot preizkusna miza za več novih oblikovalskih konceptov, namenjenih zagotavljanju večjih nosilnosti v kombinaciji z enostavnim vzdrževanjem. Pod vodstvom oblikovalca Edwarda F. Katzenbergerja so v manj kot enem letu oblikovali in izdelali maketo. [1]

Prva stranka so bile letalske sile Združenih držav Amerike, ki so naročile pet letal YH-19 za oceno, prvi let YH-19 je bil 10. novembra 1949, manj kot eno leto po datumu začetka programa. Sledila je dobava prvega YH-19 ameriškim letalskim silam 16. aprila 1950 in dostava prvega helikopterja HO4S-1 ameriški mornarici 31. avgusta 1950. Ameriško letalstvo YH-19 je bilo poslano v Korejo po marca 1951, kjer se mu je septembra 1951. pridružil še drugi YH-19. 27. aprila 1951 je bil prvi HRS-1 dostavljen ameriški marinci, 2. maja 1951 pa je bil prvi S-55 dostavljeno Westland Aircraft. [1]

1.281 helikopterjev je izdelal Sikorsky v ZDA. Dodatnih 447 so izdelali imetniki licence helikopterja, med njimi Westland Aircraft, SNCASE v Franciji in Mitsubishi na Japonskem. [1]

Helikopter je bil široko izvožen, uporabljale so ga številne druge države, vključno s Portugalsko, Grčijo, Izraelom, Čilom, Južno Afriko, Dansko in Turčijo.

Leta 1954 so marinci preizkusili idejo za izboljšanje dviga v vročih in visokih in/ali močno obremenjenih pogojih z namestitvijo raketne šobe na vrh vsake lopatice rotorja z rezervoarjem za gorivo v sredini nad pestom rotorja. Za sedem minut delovanja je bilo zagotovljeno dovolj goriva. [2] Čeprav so preskusi sistema veljali za uspešne, operativno nikoli niso bili sprejeti. [1]

Glavne novosti, izvedene na H-19, so bile namestitev motorja naprej pod prostor za posadko in pred glavno kabino, uporaba odmičnih tečajev, ki se nahajajo devet centimetrov (229 mm) od središča rotorja, in uporaba hidravličnih servomotorjev za krmiljenje glavnega rotorja. Te lastnosti so prinesle letalo, ki je bilo v transportni vlogi veliko bolj sposobno kot prejšnje zasnove Sikorskega.

S prednjim položajem motorja je bila glavna kabina v bistvu v skladu z vrtilno osjo glavnega rotorja in blizu težišča letala, kar olajša vzdrževanje ustrezne teže in ravnotežja v različnih pogojih obremenitve. [1] Povod za to izbiro oblikovanja je bila nedavna zavrnitev Sikorskega XHJS s strani ameriške mornarice v korist tandemskega rotorja Piasecki HUP Retriever. težo in ravnovesje, zaradi česar je Sikorsky poiskal alternativne zasnove z enim rotorjem, ki tega niso zahtevale. [3]

Druga prednost tega položaja motorja je bilo preprosto vzdrževanje, saj je bil do motorja zlahka dostopen na tleh skozi dvojna vrata v obliki lupine, celoten motor je bilo mogoče spremeniti v samo dveh urah, radialni motor pa je bil obrnjen nazaj glede na tipično letalo namestitev, ki omogoča lažji dostop do dodatne opreme motorja. [1] [opomba 1]

Odmikajoči se tečaji in hidravlični servomotorji so dali bolj pozitivno kontrolo leta pri različnih obremenitvah, izolirali so kontrole letenja pred vibracijami in zmanjšali krmilne sile, s katerimi je H-19 lahko letel samo z dvema prstoma na cikličnem krmiljenju. [1]

Prototipi YH-19 so predstavljali topo krmišče trupa in eno samo vodoravno zadnjo ploskev, nameščeno na desni bok, z majhno navpično plavutjo na zunanjem delu. Začetni proizvodni modeli so dodali veliko plavuti, podobno filetu, za trupom in pod zadkom, konfiguracija repne plošče pa je bila spremenjena v obrnjeno obliko "V". [3]

Zgodnje različice H-19 in HO4S so poganjali radial Pratt & amp Whitney R-1340-57 z močjo 600 KM (472 kW) in uporabljali centrifugalno sklopko, ki je samodejno vključila glavni rotor, ko je bila dosežena prednastavljena hitrost motorja. Vendar pa je HO4S v tej ameriški mornarici veljal za premalo zmogljivega, zato je bilo letalo ponovno motorizirano z radialcem Wright R-1300-3 s 700 KM (522 kW), za katerega je ameriška mornarica ugotovila, da je primeren v zračno-morskem morju. reševalno vlogo bi H-19B, HO4S-3, HRS-3 in naslednji modeli uporabljali to moč. Modeli R-1300 so uporabljali tudi eno vodoravno zadnjo ploščo namesto zgodnje obrnjenega sloga "V", nova hidro-mehanska sklopka pa je omogočila lažji in hitrejši pospešek rotorja med vklopom sklopke ter omogočila zagon in delovanje motorja pri katerem koli hitrost, medtem ko je ločen od menjalnika in rotorjev. [1]

Zgodnji civilni in vojaški modeli S-55 so ponujali zložljivo dvigalo nosilnosti 400 lb (181 kg) nad glavnimi vrati kabine, medtem ko so bili poznejši modeli lahko opremljeni z zmogljivejšo in zanesljivejšo enoto s kapaciteto 600 lb (272 kg). Od uvedbe S-55C oktobra 1956 je bila repna rama nagnjena za tri stopinje navzdol, da bi zagotovila večjo razdaljo glavnega rotorja med trdimi pristajanji, modeli, opremljeni z nagnjenim repom, pa so uporabljali tudi 2,67 m repnega rotorja. prejšnje enote 8 ft 8 in (2,64 m). [1]

H-19 Chickasaw se odlikuje kot prvi resnični transportni helikopter ameriške vojske in je kot tak odigral pomembno vlogo pri začetni oblikovanju vojaške doktrine o letalski mobilnosti in uporabi helikopterjev, ki nosijo čete, na bojišču. H-19 je med korejsko vojno, ki se je začela leta 1951, kot neoborožen transportni helikopter opravil preizkuse v živo v rokah 6. transportnega podjetja. Helikopter je med testiranji, kot so medicinska evakuacija, taktični nadzor in podpora tovora na fronti, odlično presegel zmogljivosti H-5 Dragonfly, ki jih je vojska uporabljala skozi vojno.

Ameriški marinci so v korejski vojni široko uporabljali H-19. V službi USMC je bil označen kot HRS. Marine Squadron HMR-161 je 2. septembra 1951 prispela v Korejo s 15 helikopterji HRS-1. Nova eskadrila helikopterjev je začela delovati ob prihodu. 13. septembra 1951 je med operacijo Vetrnica I HMR-161 na greben v območju Punchbowl prepeljal 18 848 ton (8,5 t) orodja in 74 marincev. Teden dni kasneje je HMR-161 preusmeril 224 marincev izvidniške družbe in 17.772 funtov (8,1 t) zalog na oddaljeni vrh hriba na istem območju. Njihova zmogljivost se je še naprej izboljševala in med operacijo Haylift II 23. in 27. februarja 1953 je HMR-161 dvignil 1,6 milijona funtov (730 t) tovora za oskrbo dveh polkov. Čeprav so helikopterji HMR-161 delovali na območjih vročega pristajanja, niso izgubili nobenega helikopterja zaradi sovražnega ognja. Helikopterji HRS-1 so bili uporabljeni tudi za premestitev baterij raketnih raket. Ker rakete ob izstrelitvi ustvarjajo viden prah, so lahka tarča sovražnikovega topništva. Zaradi zmanjšanja izpostavljenosti so bile lansirne ladje in posadke premaknjene dvakrat na dan. Vsak helikopter HRS-1 je nosil štiri raketne rakete in dodatne rakete kot zunanji tovor s posadko v kabini. Helikopter HRS-1 se je v korejski službi izkazal kot trpežen in zanesljiv. Eden naj bi odletel domov, potem ko je glavnem rotorju pri drevesu izgubil 18 cm (46 cm). HMR-161 je poročal o 90-odstotni razpoložljivosti letal. [4]

Leta 1951 so ameriške letalske sile naročile 50 H-19A za reševalne naloge. Ta letala so bila med korejsko vojno primarni helikopterji za reševanje in medicinsko evakuacijo ZDA. Letalske sile so še naprej uporabljale H-19 do šestdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja in na koncu kupile 270 modelov H-19B. [5]

1. septembra 1953 je Sabena s S-55 odprla prvo komercialno helikoptersko storitev v Evropi, s potmi med Rotterdamom in Maastrichtom na Nizozemskem ter Kölnom in Bonnom v Nemčiji. [3]

Francija je v Alžiriji agresivno uporabljala helikopterje, tako za prevoz vojakov kot za bojne ladje, helikopterji Piasecki/Vertol H-21 in helikopterji Sikorski H-34, ki jih je izdelala Sud, pa so hitro premaknili letala s fiksnimi krili za prevoz parazitov in ekipe za hiter odziv. V Indokini je bilo za evakuacijo ponesrečenih na voljo majhno število Hillerjevih H-23 in Sikorskih H-19. Leta 1956 so francoske letalske sile poskusile z oborožitvijo H-19, nato pa so jih v službi nadomestili zmogljivejši helikopterji Piasecki H-21 in Sikorsky H-34. H-19 je bil prvotno opremljen z 20-milimetrskim topom, dvema raketnima izstrelkoma, dvema 12,7-milimetrskim mitraljezom in 7,5-milimetrskim lahkim mitraljezom, ki je streljal iz oken kabine, vendar se je to breme izkazalo za pretežko in celo rahlo oborožene topniške ladje H-19, opremljene s prilagodljivimi mitraljezi za samoobrambo, so se izkazale za premajhne. [ potreben citat ]

H-19 so v prvi vojni v Indokini uporabljale tudi francoske sile. Le nekaj vojaških obrabljenih H-19 je bilo leta 1958, ko je odšla francoska vojska, predano letalskim silam Republike Vietnam. Ti so bili v prvih dneh vietnamske vojne zelo omejeni, preden jih je zamenjal sposobnejši Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw. [6]

H-19 je zapustil vojaško službo ZDA, ko je CH-19E 26. februarja 1969 upokojila eskadrila ameriške mornarice HC-5. Presežek H-19 so prodali na prostem trgu, civilni interes pa je zadoščal, da je Sikorsky (in kasneje Orlando Helicopter) Airways) so ponudili komplete za predelavo, ki omogočajo komercialno upravljanje vojaškega presežka H-19 v skladu s standardnim certifikatom tipa Zvezne uprave za letalstvo kot S-55B. [opomba 2] Podjetja za poprodajo trga so ponudila tudi predelave turbo gredi in novo predelavo "Heli-Camper", podobno avtodomu, ki vključuje vgrajeno mini kuhinjo in spalnice za štiri. [1]

  • Argentina
  • Brazilija
  • Belgija
  • Kanada
  • Čile
  • Kuba
  • Danska
  • Dominikanska republika
  • Francija
  • Grčija
  • Gvatemala
  • Haiti
  • Izrael
  • Italija
  • Indija
  • Japonska
  • Nizozemska
  • Norveška
  • Pakistan
  • Filipini
  • Portugalska
  • Južna Afrika (upravljana 3 letala S-55C 1956-1967) [10]
  • Južni Vietnam
  • Španija
  • Tajska
  • puran
  • Združeno kraljestvo
  • Združene države
  • Venezuela
  • Jugoslavija
  • 17. januar 1975-V najbolj smrtonosni nesreči helikopterja v islandski zgodovini se je v Hvalfjörðurju na Islandiji zaradi močnega vetra strmoglavil S-55B, pri katerem je umrlo vseh pet potnikov in oba člana posadke.

Glej Westland Whirlwind (helikopter) za primere britanskega S-55, ki je bil izdelan z licenco.


Chickasaw Head - Zgodovina

Ni veliko ostankov od številnih dnevnih in internatov, ki so posejali pokrajino okoli doline Rdeče reke Oklahome. Tako kot pri
vse ostalo v našem standardiziranem svetu je izobraževanje postalo nacionalna in ne skupnostna zadeva. The
Choctaw in Chickasaw
skupnosti v sredini 19. stoletja pa so veliko vlagale v lokalizirano izobraževanje, saj so dobro vedele, kaj bi se lahko zgodilo, če bi se
ni.

Prisilno & quotAsimilacija & quot
V vsej ameriški zgodovini so imeli Indijanci dva & citata: & quot asimilirati ali biti uničeni. Medtem ko so se prva plemena borila do bridkega konca
proti evropskim napadalcem so se druga plemena naučila, da je edini način, da se ohranijo, tako da postanejo bolj podobni belcem.
Cerkve so ustanovile misijonske šole, da bi Indijance naučile biti bolj "krščanske" in "ameriške". Pogosto šole niso postavljali
znotraj plemenskih skupnosti, vendar na oddaljenih lokacijah, s čimer so otroci prisiljeni živeti ločeno od družin. Ta strategija je imela predvideni učinek:
šole so Indijance osvobodile njihove kulture, vse pod krinko & citiranosti. & quot

Taktika vojne?
Ta prisilna asimilacija je postala dobro uporabljena taktika po indijanskih vojnah v ravnicah v 1870-ih. Na stotine otrok iz Siouxa v Dakoti,
Črnonoga in šajenska plemena (
Komanči in Kiowas v precej manjši meri*) so bili poslani v internate v oddaljenih državah
Pennsylvania, kjer bi jih lahko & quot; americanizirali & quot;.
programov, ki so se že začeli v zgodnji republiki.

Zato je postalo zelo pomembno za pet civiliziranih plemen, kdo je bil ga je Jacksonova vlada prisilila na indijsko ozemlje, do
sprožili tako imenovano "preventivno stavko." Hitro so ustanovili šole, nad katerimi bi lahko njihovi narodi ohranili določen nadzor. So naredili
to s podporo prezbiterijanskih, metodističnih in baptističnih misijonarskih skupin, ki so skupaj z narodi sodelovale pri zagotavljanju
izobraževanje.

Vse na vozilu
Prva šola naroda Choctaw Nation je bila ustanovljena v desetletju po njihovem prisilnem izgonu v današnjo Oklahomo. Akademija Wheelock,
ustanovljeno leta 1842 kot skupno prizadevanje voditeljev Choctawa, prezbiterijanskih misijonarjev in agentov indijskega urada, sprva je delovalo kot dnevna šola
tako za dečke kot za dekleta. Izobraževanje deklet, ki je bilo prej zanemarjeno, je zagovarjal velečasni Choctaw Israel Folsom.

Poudarjena je bila verska vzgoja, čeprav so misijonarji obžalovali, da Indijanci niso zelo dovzetni za svoje
& quotAmerikanizacija & quot prizadevanja. Wheelock, ki se nahaja vzhodno od Fort Towsona, je kasneje postal internat za dekleta z bližnjim Norwalkom
Akademija služi fantom. Akademija Armstrong, ustanovljena leta 1845, je postala prva šola Choctaw. Bilo je samooskrbno, s koruznimi njivami
in zelenjavni vrtovi. Odrasli so obiskovali šolo ob sobotah, da bi se učili brati in pisati, učenci pa so se učili klasične algebre
književnosti in geografije ter mehanskih in domačih veščin. Leta 1862 je Akademija Armstrong postala sedež Choctawa
konfederacijo in je služil kot prestolnica naroda Choctaw do leta 1880.

Druge akademije vzdolž vzhodne Rdeče reke na indijskem ozemlju so vključevale Spencerjevo akademijo za dečke, ustanovljeno leta 1844 severno od
Doaksville , ki je služila kot konfederacijska bolnišnica. Akademija Bloomfield za dekleta iz leta 1850 v bližini pristanišča Colbert's Ferry je postala tudi
bolnišnici med vojno. Akademija za dekleta Wapanucka (nekaj časa je bila soizobraževalna) se je odprla severovzhodno od
Boggy Depo .

Te šole so delovale kot dnevne šole z več lokalnega nadzora in internati, ki so spadali pod upravne in cerkvene odbore
in zvezne agencije. Pogosto bi šola, ki je bila nekoč pod lokalnim nadzorom, postopoma postala internat kot prebivalstvo
centri so se odmaknili od šol. Potem ko so Chickasaws v petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja obnovili svojo narodnost, tako Bloomfield kot Wapanucka
Akademije so bile v njihovi izključni pristojnosti.

Uničenja
Akademije so trajale vse do začetka 20. stoletja. Žal jih je ogenj požrl veliko. Lesene zgradbe Bloomfielda
Akademija je pogorela vsaj trikrat, preden je bila sprejeta odločitev o opustitvi šole. Akademija Armstrong je bila večinoma opečna
zgrajena, vendar je tudi ona doživela požare. Mlada ženska iz Doaksvillea je pripovedovala o svojih obiskih uničene Armstrongove akademije v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja,
kjer se je spomnila & quotpiles kosti & quot, ki je ležala v nekdanjem laboratoriju za anatomijo. Tudi Armstrong ni bil nikoli obnovljen. Spencer
Akademija je imela ognjeno smrt. Izjema je bila akademija Wapanucka, ki se je počasi razpadla, ko se je leta 1911 zaprla.

Dve akademiji ob Rdeči reki še vedno obstajata. Akademija Wheelock je zdaj nacionalna zgodovinska znamenitost, razlogi pa so odprti
vsak dan. Medtem ko je veliko gospodarskih poslopij v ruševinah, stoji v 1880-ih lesena in pobeljena upravna stavba, zgrajena v 1880-ih.
središče. Brezplačen muzej se nahaja v leseni skupni zgradbi. V bližini je prezbiterijanska cerkev Wheelock, zgrajena iz trdnega kamna
in posvečeno leta 1847. Na sosednjem pokopališču je veliko pokopov otrok, ki so podlegli škrlatinki.

Najbolj impresivna od teh akademij je Goodland, ne pa zaradi svoje arhitekture. Od vseh akademij, ki sem jih omenil (in nekaj jaz
ni), Goodland je edini, ki še vedno deluje. Ustanovljena je bila v 1850 -ih kot misijonska šola za sirote Indijance v bližini Granta v Goodlandu
is now a Presbyterian boarding school, taking care of children regardless of religious, national, sexual, familial, socio-economic, or racial
affiliation.

Except for Goodland and Wheelock, these historic schools only exist as entries in history books. Although the academies could be
considered the heart and soul of the nations' establishment in Indian Territory, often archaeological surveys are needed just to pinpoint
their locations. The only evidence of Armstrong, Bloomfield, Wapanucka and Spencer Academies consist of inaccessible cemeteries on
private property. Other academies I did not mention have not even received National Register status because nothing remains of them.

These school are, without a doubt, incredibly important to Oklahoma history. Hopefully, they'll continue to be recognized by subsequent
historians.


History & Culture

Chickasaw Country is rich with Native American culture and Western history. You can spend days going through all of the spectacular, unique locations and museums.

The Chickasaw Cultural Center deserves a day to explore the rich history and culture of the Chickasaw Nation. Tishomingo also houses several locations special to the history of the Chickasaw people, including the Chickasaw Capitol Building.

For western history, the Chisholm Trail Heritage Center will take you back in time, and the Gene Autry Museum will remind you of simpler days and beloved movies.

There is no shortage of fine art, either. Exhibit C, located in Bricktown, Oklahoma City, is a beautiful gallery of contemporary Native American art, and you can take your favorite pieces home with you. The Goddard Center houses many beautiful art pieces, as well as educational classes.

Learn and grow during your time in Chickasaw Country with our many opportunities to enjoy history and culture.


American influence and intrusion

During the 1780s and 1790s the Chickasaws played the United States and Spain off of one another, establishing trade with both countries while refusing to be dominated by either. The Chickasaws signed treaties with Spain in 1784, 1792, and 1793 and with the United States in 1786, 1801, 1805, 1816, 1818, and 1826. The play-off system worked for awhile and prevented either Spain or the United States from making significant inroads on to Chickasaw lands. Skillful diplomacy had always been important for the Chickasaws in retaining their sovereignty, and that expertise became more important after the American Revolution. That state of affairs ended in 1795 when, in the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also called Pinckney’s Treaty), Spain ceded any claim to lands above the 31st parallel, thus placing all Chickasaw lands within the boundaries of the United States.

The Mississippi Territory was formed three years later in 1798, and Americans flooded into lands along the Mississippi River and then along the Natchez Trace that went through the middle of Chickasaw lands. Along with the growing pressure on the Chickasaws to cede their lands came cultural and economic changes. Chickasaw chiefs led a new effort to encourage the production of renewable resources, such as cattle ranching and cotton farming, in order to establish a market economy among the Chickasaws and move away from dependence on the deerskin trade. Along with these new agricultural pursuits came slave ownership, constitutional government, private land ownership, and changing ideas about the role of women that more closely mirrored American mainstream values.

Protestant missionaries arrived among the Chickasaws in the early 19th century, teaching Christianity, writing, arithmetic, and domestic skills. The U.S. government urged these changes among the Chickasaws and other eastern Indians and suggested that Indians could use these new “civilized” abilities to become American citizens. Unfortunately, even though many Chickasaws did adopt the values, economics, and religion of their American neighbors, residents of Mississippi, which became a state in 1817, insisted that Indians had no right to possess lands that more “civilized” (meaning Euro-American) citizens could own and farm. The Mississippi government sided with this racist view and passed a law in February 1829 that relinquished all Indian land claims in the state and extended state jurisdiction over those lands. This duplicitous governmental action, not war, finally defeated the Chickasaws in Mississippi.


Vsebina

Uredi izvor

The Mississippian Cultures developed between

850-950CE around the Mississippi River with some regional variations. This was a period of increasing sociopolitical complexity, with the intensification of agriculture, settlements in larger towns or chiefdoms, as well as the formation of strategic alliances to facilitate communication. There is evidence of the organization of labor from the mounds built that remain today, as well as the skills of artisans and craftmanship from the elaborate and intricate remains of burials. [11] Furthermore, as chiefdoms arose within the Chickasaw Nation in addition to across the Southeast, the increased social complexity and population growth were sustained by effective and widespread farming practices. While the origins of the Chickasaw continue to remain uncertain, there have been a number of proposed theories by anthropologists and historians. One theory is that the Chickasaw were at one time a part of the Choctaw and later branched off, given their close connections linguistically and geographically. [12] Another is that they were descendants of the pre-historic Mississippian tribes, having migrated from the West given their oral histories. [13] According to some of their oral stories, the Chickasaw first settled in the Chickasaw Old Fields, what is currently northern Alabama today, and later re-established themselves near the Tombigbee River. [14]

European Contact 16th-17th century Edit

Hernando de Soto is credited as being the first European to contact the Chickasaw during his travels of 1540, and along with his army, were some of the first, and last, European explorers to come into contact with the Mississippian cultures and nations of the Southeast. He discovered them to be an agrarian nation with the political organization of a chiefdom governmental system, with the head chief residing in the largest and main temple mound in the chiefdom, with the remaining family lineage and commoners spreading out across the villages. [15] After an uneasy truce regarding letting the Spanish stay in their camps for the winter and surviving on the tribe's food supply, the Chickasaws planned a surprise night attack on Desoto and his men as they were in preparation to leave months later. Thus they successfully sent a defiant message to their European enemies not to return to their land. As a result, 150 years passed before the Chickasaw received another European expedition. [16]

The next encounter the Chickasaw Nation had with European settlers was with French colonists, Robert La Salle and Henri Tonti. [17] Not long after, by the end of the 17th century, the Chickasaw Nation had established successful trade relationships with the British in the Carolinas as well as the French. In exchange for hides and slaves, the Chickasaw obtained metal tools, guns, and other supplies from the Europeans. [18] The Chickasaw had a smaller population, of around 3,500-4,000 people, in comparison to their surrounding neighbors such as the Choctaw, with a population of about 20,000. [19] However, there became increased efforts by the English and the French to establish and maintain strong alliances with the Chickasaw Nation as the struggles for power in the area relied primarily upon the allying of not only the Chickasaw, but the surrounding sovereign tribes in the region as well. Their effective trade routes later became the focal point of the wars fought between Great Britain and France. [20] During the colonial period, some Chickasaw towns traded with French colonists from La Louisiane, including their settlements at Biloxi, or Mobile.

18th-19th century Edit

After the American Revolutionary War, the new state of Georgia was trying to strengthen its claim to western lands, which it said went to the Mississippi River under its colonial charter. It also wanted to satisfy a great demand by planters for land to develop, and the state government, including the governor, made deals to favor political insiders. Various development companies formed to speculate in land sales. After a scandal in the late 1780s, another developed in the 1790s. In what was referred to as the Yazoo land scandal of January 1795, the state of Georgia sold 22 million acres of its western lands to four land companies, although this territory was occupied by the Chickasaw and other tribes, and there were other European nations with some sovereignty in the area. [21] This was the second Yazoo land sale, which generated outrage when the details were publicized. Reformers passed a state law forcing the annulment of this sale in February 1796. [22] But the Georgia-Mississippi Company had already sold part of its holdings to the New England Mississippi Company, and it had sold portions to settlers. Conflicts arose as settlers tried to claim and develop these lands. Georgia finally ceded its claim to the US in 1810, but the issues took nearly another decade to resolve.

Abraham Bishop of New Haven, Connecticut, wrote a 1797 pamphlet to address the land speculation initiated by the Georgia-Mississippi Company. Within this discussion, he wrote about the Chickasaw and their territory in what became Mississippi:

The Chickasaws are a nation of Indians who inhabit the country on the east side of the Mississippi, on the head branches of the Tombeckbe (sic), Mobille (sic) and Yazoo rivers. Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably well watered from springs, and a pretty good soil. They have seven towns, and their number of fighting men is estimated at 575. [23]

The Chickasaw sold a section of their lands with the Treaty of Tuscaloosa, resulting in the loss of what became known as the Jackson Purchase, in 1818. This area included western Kentucky and western Tennessee, both areas not heavily populated by members of the tribe. They remained in their primary homeland of northern Mississippi and northwest Alabama until the 1830s. After decades of increasing pressure by federal and state governments to cede their land, as European Americans were eager to move into their territory and had already begun to do so as squatters or under fraudulent land sales, the Chickasaw finally agreed to cede their remaining Mississippi Homeland to the U.S. under the Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and relocate west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory.

The Chickasaw removal is one of the most traumatic episodes in the history of the nation. As a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the Chickasaw Nation was forced to move to Indian territory, suffering a significant decline in population. However, due to the negotiating skills of the Chickasaw leaders, they were led to favorable sales of their land in Mississippi. Of the Five Civilized Tribes, the Chickasaw were one of the last ones to move. In 1837, the Chickasaw and Choctaw signed the Treaty of Doaksville, [24] by which the Chickasaw purchased the western lands of the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory. Their area in the western area of the nation was called the Chickasaw District. It consisted of what are now Panola, Wichita, Caddo, and Perry counties.

Although originally the western boundary of the Choctaw Nation extended to the 100th meridian, virtually no Chickasaw lived west of the Cross Timbers, due to continual raiding by the Plains Indians of the southern region. The United States eventually leased the area between the 100th and 98th meridians for the use of the Plains tribes. The area was referred to as the "Leased District". [25]

The division of the Choctaw Nation was ratified by the Choctaw–Chickasaw Treaty of 1854. The Chickasaw constitution, establishing the nation as separate from the Choctaw, was signed August 30, 1856, in their new capital of Tishomingo (now Tishomingo, Oklahoma). The first Chickasaw governor was Cyrus Harris. The nation consisted of four divisions Tishomingo County, Pontotoc County, Pickens County, and Panola County. Law enforcement in the nation was provided by the Chickasaw Lighthorsemen. Non-Indians fell under the jurisdiction of the Federal court at Fort Smith.

Following the Civil War, the United States forced the Chickasaw Nation into a new peace treaty due to their support for the Confederacy. Under the new treaty, the Chickasaw (and Choctaw) ceded the "Leased District" to the United States.

20th century to present Edit

In 1907, when Oklahoma entered the union as the 46th state, the role of tribal governments in Indian Territories ceased, and as a result, the Chickasaw people were then granted United States citizenship. For decades, the United States appointed representatives for the Chickasaw Nation until 1971. Douglas H. Johnston was the first man to serve in this capacity. Governor Johnston served the Chickasaw Nation from 1906 until his death in 1939 at age 83. Though it may have seemed like the federal government finally achieved their goal of completely assimilating the Chickasaw Nation into mainstream American life, the Chickasaw people continued to practice traditional activities and gather together socially, believing that the community involvement would sustain their culture, language, and core beliefs and values. This gave rise to the movement towards which the Chickasaw would govern themselves.

During the 1960s and the period of the civil rights movement, Native American Indian activism was also on the rise. A group of Chickasaw met at Seeley Chapel, a small country church near Connerville, Oklahoma, to work toward the re-establishment of its government. With the passage of Public Law 91-495, their tribal government was recognized by the United States. In 1971, the people held their first tribal election since 1904. They elected Overton James by a landslide as governor of the Chickasaw Nation. Thus, the Chickasaw communities became even closer in support of one another for the greater good of the Chickasaw peoples.

Since the 1980s, the tribal government has focused on building an economically diverse base to generate funds that will support programs and services to Indian people.

Urejanje jezika

Chikashshanompa’, a traditionally oral language, is the primary and official language of the Chickasaw Nation. Over 3,000 years old, [26] Chikashshanompa’ is part of the Muskogean language family and is very similar to the Choctaw language. There has been a great decline over the years in the number of speakers, as the language is spoken by less than two hundred people today, with the majority being Chickasaw elders. [27] The Chickasaw language was often discouraged in students attending school and was often discouraged in even tribally run schools. [28] Recently, the Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma has promoted the Chickasaw Language Revitalization Program enacted in 2007. The program focuses on the Master Apprentice Program, which pairs a language-learning student with an individual already fluent in Chikashshanompa’ in attempts to gain conversational fluency. [29] Other attempts at language revitalization have included establishing university language courses, creating a language learning app, youth language clubs, and more.

Religion and cultural practice Edit

At the core of Chickasaw religious beliefs and traditions is the supreme deity Aba' Binni'li' (Sitting or Dwelling Above), the spirit of fire and giver of life, light, and warmth. Aba' Binni'li' is believed to live above the clouds along with a number of other lesser deities such as the spirits of the sky, clouds, evil spirits, and more. [30] The Chickasaws also believe in a life after death, believing that those who lead a good life will follow the path to heaven while those following an evil path suffer in the land of the witches. Corpses were to be buried under their homes, facing west with faces painted red, and be surrounded by their individual possessions.

The Chickasaw Nation follows the traditional monogamous marriage system, [31] with the groom obtaining the blessings of the wife’s parents and following with a simple ceremony soon after. Marriage ceremonies were all arranged by women. Adultery is a misdemeanor seriously looked down upon with severe private as well as public consequences since this was thought to bring shame and dishonor to the families. [32] As the Chickasaws practice matrilineal descent, children usually follow their mother’s house/clan name.

The Green Corn Festival is one of the largest and most important ceremonies of the Chickasaw Nation. The festival is an important religious ceremony that takes place in the latter of summer, lasting two to eight days serving as a religious renewal in addition to thanksgiving, as all members of the tribe give thanks for the year’s corn harvest and pray to Aba' Binni'li'. [33] Major events held during the celebration includes a two-day fast, a purification ceremony, the forgiveness of minor sins, the Stomp Dance (the most well-known traditional dances of the Chickasaw), major ball games, and more. [34]

The Chickasaw Nation is headquartered in Ada, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Bryan, Carter, Coal, Garvin, Grady, Jefferson, Johnston, Love, McClain, Marshall, Murray, Pontotoc, and Stephens counties in Oklahoma. The tribal governor is Bill Anoatubby. [3] Bill Anoatubby was elected governor in 1987, and at the time, the tribe had a larger spending budget than funds available. [35] Anoatubby's effective management gradually led the tribe toward progress, as tribal operations and funding have increased exponentially. Governor Anoatubby also lists some of his primary goals as meeting the needs and desires of the Chickasaw people by providing opportunities for employment, higher education, as well as health care services.

The Chickasaw Nation’s current three-department system of government was established with the ratification of the 1983 Chickasaw Nation Constitution. The tribal government takes the form of a democratic republic. The governor and the lieutenant governor are elected to serve four-year terms and run for political office together. The Chickasaw government also has an executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial department. In addition to electing a governor along with a lieutenant governor, voters also select thirteen members to make up the tribal legislature (with three-year terms), and three justices to make up the tribal supreme court. [36] The elected officials provided for in the Constitution believe in a unified commitment, whereby government policy serves the common good of all Chickasaw citizens. This common good extends to future generations as well as today’s citizens.

The structure of the current government encourages and supports infrastructure for strong business ventures and an advanced tribal economy. The use of new technologies and dynamic business strategies in a global market are also encouraged. Monies generated in business are divided between investments for further diversification of enterprises and support of tribal government operations, programs, and services for Indian people. [37] This unique system is key to the Chickasaw Nation’s efforts to pursue self-sufficiency and self-determination, ensuring the continuous enrichment and support of Indian lives.

Revenues generated by Chickasaw Nation tribal business endeavors fund more than 200 programs and services. These programs cover education, health care, youth, aging, housing and more, all of which directly benefit Chickasaw families, Oklahomans and their communities. [38]

Governor Bill Anoatubby appointed Charles W. Blackwell as the Chickasaw Nation's first Ambassador to the United States in 1995. [39] (Blackwell had previously served as the Chickasaw delegate to the United States from 1990 to 1995). At the time of his appointment in 1995, Blackwell became the first Native American tribal ambassador to the United States government. Blackwell served in Washington as ambassador from 1995 until his death on January 3, 2013. [39] Governor Bill Anoatubby named Neal McCaleb ambassador-at-large in 2013, a role similar to that of the late Charles Blackwell.

The Chickasaw Nation operates more than 100 diversified businesses in a variety of services and industries, including manufacturing, energy, health care, media, technology, hospitality, retail and tourism. [40] Among these are Bedré Fine Chocolate in Davis, Lazer Zone Family Fun Center and the McSwain Theatre in Ada The Artesian Hotel in Sulphur Chickasaw Nation Industries in Norman, Oklahoma Global Gaming Solutions, LLC KADA (AM), KADA-FM, KCNP, KTLS, KXFC, and KYKC radio stations in Ada and Treasure Valley Inn and Suites in Davis. In 1987, with funding from the US federal government, the Chickasaw Nation operated just over thirty programs in hopes of eventually reaching the state of being in a firm financial base. Today, the nation has more than two hundred tribally funded programs as well as more than sixty federally funded programs providing services from housing, education, entertainment, employment, healthcare, and more.

Governor Anoatubby highly prioritizes the services available to the Chickasaw people. Two health clinics (in Tishomingo and Ardmore), as well as the Chickasaw Nation Medical Center, was established in Ada, Oklahoma in 1987. Not long after, many more health clinics and facilities have opened as well, with even a convenient housing facility on the campus of the Chickasaw Nation Medical Center designed to relieve families and patients of travel and lodging costs if traveling far from home. Increases in higher education funding and scholarships have enabled many students to pursue higher education, with funding increasing from $200,000 thirty years ago to students receiving more than $15.6 million in scholarships, grants, and other educational support. [41] The Chickasaw Nation is also contributing heavily to the tourism industry in Oklahoma. In 2010, the Chickasaw Cultural Center opened, attracting more than 200,000 visitors from around the world as well as providing hundreds of employment opportunities to local residents. [42] In this year alone, the Chickasaw Nation also opened a Welcome Center, Artesian Hotel, Chickasaw Travel Shop, Chickasaw Conference Center and Retreat, Bedré Fine Chocolate Factory, and the Salt Creek Casino. In 2002, the Chickasaw Nation purchased Bank2 with headquarters in Oklahoma City. It was renamed Chickasaw Community Bank in January of 2020. It started with $7.5 million in assets and has grown to $135 million in assets today. [43] The Chickasaw Nation also operates many historical sites and museums, including the Chickasaw Nation Capitols, and Kullihoma Grounds, as well as a number of casinos. Their casinos include Ada Gaming Center, Artesian Casino, Black Gold Casino, Border Casino, Chisholm Trail Casino, Gold Mountain Casino, Goldsby Gaming Center, Jet Stream Casino, Madill Gaming Center, Newcastle Casino, Newcastle Travel Gaming, RiverStar Casino, Riverwind Casino, Treasure Valley Casino, Texoma Casino, SaltCreek Casino, Washita Casino and WinStar World Casino. They also own Lone Star Park in Grand Prairie, Texas and Remington Park Casino in Oklahoma City. The estimated annual tribal economic impact in the region from all sources is more than $3.18 billion. [3]


CHICKASAW SCHOOLS.

In their original homeland in present Mississippi, beginning in 1799 Chickasaw Nation citizens first experienced English-language education through missionaries. The most significant of those efforts began in 1819 as a result of the Indian Civilization Fund Act, which invited Protestant missionaries to teach religion if they also taught secular subjects.

Under that legislation the Cumberland Presbyterian Association founded a school for Chickasaw children, Charity Hall, in 1820, and the South Carolina-Georgia Synod established Monroe, a demonstration farm school, in 1822. The boarding school/demonstration farm model was a forerunner of the "manual labor academy," a model of education considered inappropriate for white children but deemed appropriate for women, African Americans, and American Indians.

Chickasaws, however, found this model to be effective, as agriculture was a significant part of their nation's economic base, and even appropriated funds to build three more schools: Tokshish, Martyn, and Caney Creek. The objective of these schools was "to train the head, heart, and hand" of Chickasaw children. Consequently, the course of study included religious, academic, and domestic or industrial components. The Chickasaw people viewed education as essential to their continuing success in negotiations with the United States government. Nevertheless, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, and in 1837 the Chickasaw people were forcibly relocated to the Indian Territory (present Oklahoma).

The Chickasaws determinedly rebuilt their nation. Knowing that education was crucial to their ultimate survival, in their first written laws in 1844 they founded a tribal academy, the Chickasaw Manual Labor Academy for boys. They soon opened four other boarding schools, for both males and females. Those schools were the Wapanucka Institute for girls (1852), the Bloomfield Academy for girls (1852), the Collins Institute (Colbert, 1854), and the Burney Institute for girls (1859). Remarkably, those schools were established by the Chickasaw Nation twenty years before the opening of the first federally operated off-reservation boarding school.

The Chickasaws partnered with Protestant denominations in their endeavors. Although the tribe supplied most of the funds, the missionary board controlled the schools' operation and hired the teachers from New England colleges and academies. The curriculum at the best-known Chickasaw boarding school, Bloomfield Academy, had academic, social, domestic, and religious components. Basic academic education was offered, as well as instruction in "social graces" such as drawing, painting, and vocal music. The domestic curriculum included instruction in sewing, cooking, and housework, which were considered an important part of the acculturation or "civilization" process. Missionaries emphasized the religious curriculum, consisting primarily of scripture memorization, as they strove to replace Chickasaw traditions with Christian teachings. The students were not allowed to speak the Chickasaw language at school, and in the case of many mixed-blood families, at home. Because of the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 the boarding schools were closed.

After the war the Chickasaws reopened them in 1876 and maintained complete control until Oklahoma statehood in 1907. That period was regarded as the golden age of the Chickasaw boarding schools. During those years Chickasaw leaders changed the institutions' curricula. At Bloomfield, for example, religious training was minimal. Bloomfield's academic curriculum was considered equivalent to that of a junior college. In addition, students were instructed in social courses such as art, music, elocution, theater, and dancing. Domestic education was notably absent. Bloomfield enjoyed such a good reputation that the school was termed "the Bryn Mawr of the West." Bloomfield graduates were known as "the Bloomfield Blossoms." The course of study was designed to educate students to become leaders, to participate in both Indian and white communities, and to help Chickasaws transcend significant social and economic boundaries.

The U.S. government took control of the schools with the passage of the Curtis Act in 1898. At the turn of the century the Chickasaw Nation operated thirteen day schools, four academies, and an orphans' home. By Oklahoma statehood in 1907 the government had laid the groundwork for a state educational system by using the schools of the Five Tribes as models. Government officials shut down the Chickasaws' school system. Only Bloomfield Academy, the pride of the Chickasaws, remained in operation until 1949, but out of their control.

Bibliografija

H. Warren Button and Eugene F. Provenzo, History of Education and Culture in America (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983).

Sarah J. Carr, "Bloomfield Academy and Its Founder," Kronike Oklahome 2 (December 1924).

Arrell M. Gibson, The Chickasaws (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971).

Joe C. Jackson, "Survey of Education in Eastern Oklahoma from 1907 to 1915," Kronike Oklahome 29 (Summer 1951).

Irene B. Mitchell, "Bloomfield Academy," Kronike Oklahome 49 (Winter 1971–72).

No part of this site may be construed as in the public domain.

Copyright to all articles and other content in the online and print versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History is held by the Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS). This includes individual articles (copyright to OHS by author assignment) and corporately (as a complete body of work), including web design, graphics, searching functions, and listing/browsing methods. Copyright to all of these materials is protected under United States and International law.

Users agree not to download, copy, modify, sell, lease, rent, reprint, or otherwise distribute these materials, or to link to these materials on another web site, without authorization of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Individual users must determine if their use of the Materials falls under United States copyright law's "Fair Use" guidelines and does not infringe on the proprietary rights of the Oklahoma Historical Society as the legal copyright holder of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and part or in whole.

Photo credits: All photographs presented in the published and online versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture are the property of the Oklahoma Historical Society (unless otherwise stated).

Citiranje

The following (as per Čikaški priročnik za slog, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Amanda J. Cobb, &ldquoChickasaw Schools,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CH034.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.

Zgodovinsko društvo Oklahoma | 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105 | 405-521-2491
Kazalo spletnega mesta | Pišite nam | Privacy | Novinarska soba | Poizvedbe na spletnem mestu


Chickasaw Head - History

Allotment, the federal policy of dividing communally held Indian tribal lands into individually owned private property, was the culmination of American attempts to destroy tribes and their governments and to open Indian lands to settlement by non-Indians and to development by railroads. It was a necessary prelude to statehood for Oklahoma and Indian territories. Tribes were removed from other parts of the country to Indian Territory (present Oklahoma) from the 1830s through the 1870s. They signed treaties with the U.S. government. These generally guaranteed that they would be undisturbed on lands the government granted them from those it had acquired by treaties with other tribes. Following a congressional initiative for a transcontinental railroad in 1849, pressure began to build for the extension of federal jurisdiction over Indian Territory.

In the aftermath of the Civil War, the Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole, who owned lands west of the 98th Meridian and who had signed treaties with the Confederacy, were forced to sell or cede those lands to the U.S. government for the settlement of western tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. By 1859 the Wichita and affiliated tribes had been settled on lands leased by the government from the Choctaw and Chickasaw in 1855. Thus Indian Territory was split between the Plains tribes settled in the west and the Five Tribes in the east.

In 1887 Congress passed the General Allotment Act, authored by Sen. Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, providing for the allotment of reservation lands. The act, for various reasons, specifically exempted the Five Tribes and the Osage, Miami and Peoria, and Sac and Fox in Indian Territory. The Five Tribes also strongly resisted allotment, fearing that extensive land grants to railroads, contingent on the clearing of Indian title, would go to the railroads if tribal governments were dissolved and land allotted to individuals.

In 1889 the Boomers, a group of prospective settlers led by David Payne, lobbied for the opening of the Unassigned Lands in central Indian Territory, purchased by the government from the Creek and Seminole but not yet assigned to any other tribes. Although the federal government repeatedly removed Payne and his followers as intruders on Indian land, it finally relented and opened the area in the Land Run of 1889. This settlement opened the way to the allotment of other Indian lands and the sale of surplus acreage to settlers. In order to accommodate the homesteaders it was necessary to establish a territorial government, and in 1890 Congress passed the Organic Act creating Oklahoma Territory.

The allotment process took place in two stages. In 1889 Pres. Benjamin Harrison appointed the Cherokee Commission, also known as the Jerome Commission after David Jerome, its chairman, to negotiate with the Cherokee and other Oklahoma tribes for their agreement to allotment and the sale of their surplus lands to the government. The Jerome Commission began its work in July 1890 with the Cherokee, who were not interested in the commissioners' propositions. The commission moved on to the Iowa tribe, who agreed to accept 80-acre allotments and sold 221,528 acres of land to the government for $254,632.59. The Sac and Fox agreed to 160-acre allotments and ceded 391,189 acres for $485,000. The Potawatomi and Shawnee also received allotments, and the government bought 325,000 surplus acres for $225,000. Further west, the Cheyenne and Arapaho, who had been settled in the Leased District obtained from the Choctaw and Chickasaw, agreed to accept a payment of $2.5 million for approximately three million acres of surplus land. The Wichita and affiliated tribes received 160-acre allotments and were paid $286,000 for their surplus land, approximately fifty cents an acre. In June 1891 the Kickapoo took 80-acre allotments and received $64,650, approximately thirty cents an acre, for their surplus. Despite their signed agreement, almost all Kickapoo refused to accept a per capita payment of their money and refused to select allotments, which a government agent finally picked for them.

The commission finally succeeded, after an early unsuccessful attempt, in signing an agreement with the Cherokee in December 1891 for the sale of the 6,022,754-acre Cherokee Outlet for $8,595,736. The Cherokee gave up the Outlet's lucrative grazing leases, and the government agreed to pay a higher price for the region. The commission then turned its attention to the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, who in September 1892 agreed to allotments of 320 acres to heads of families and 80 acres to their dependents and a payment of $2 million for approximately 2.5 million acres of land (less than eighty cents an acre.) The final agreement signed by the commission was with the Pawnee, who received allotments of 160 acres of grazing land or 80 acres of farming land and who sold 171,088 acres for $250,000.

By the time the funding for the Jerome Commission expired in August 1893, it had negotiated eleven tribal agreements and had purchased 15,100,538 acres to be opened for settlement. Its failures were with the Ponca, the Otoe and Missouria, and the Osage. It was left to other agents to secure agreements from those tribes as well as the Kaw, Quapaw, and Peoria and Miami.

Allotment negotiations with the Five Tribes were carried out by the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, chaired by Henry Dawes. Created by Congress in 1893, the commission set up its operations in Vinita in spring 1894, but ultimately it moved to Muskogee. The commissioners spent a good deal of time trying to elicit responses from tribal leaders and visiting tribal council meetings to persuade the Indians to accept allotment. Dawes was clear that Congress had the ultimate power to enforce allotment, and the task of the commission was to help the tribes decide how best to carry out the process.

Faced with obvious lack of interest on the part of the Five Tribes, the commission received congressional approval in 1896 to compile rolls of tribe members who would be eligible to receive allotments. Although the tribes had various census rolls, the Dawes Commission's authority allowed it to add individuals who maintained that they had not been included on the rolls or other lists constituting records of tribal membership. The commission thus effectively undermined the power of the tribes to determine their own membership and, in the case of the Choctaw and Chickasaw, precipitated extensive court action and legal battles over rights to be enrolled.

It was not until April 23, 1897, that the commission successfully concluded an allotment agreement, and this with the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes. The Atoka Agreement called for an equitable distribution of the tribal land base among the members, except for lands set aside for schools and townsites and land reserved because of coal and asphalt deposits. Homesteads of 160 acres would be inalienable for a period of twenty-one years, and the surplus land could be sold, one-fourth in the first year, one-half in the second year, and the remainder by the fifth year after allotment.

An agreement with the Creek followed on September 27, 1897, providing for 160-acre allotments and the sale of surplus land by the government, the proceeds to be used to equalize the value of allotments. The agreement with the Seminole was signed on December 16, 1897, calling for the equal distribution of all tribal lands, the proceeds from mineral sales to be used to equalize the allotments, and the selection by each individual of a 40-acre homestead to be permanently inalienable.

The Cherokee agreement was not signed until April 9, 1900. Each member received an equal share in the tribal estate in the form of an 80-acre allotment and an equalization payment from the sale of the excess land. Each individual selected forty acres of the allotment as a homestead that would be inalienable for a period of twenty-five years. The Choctaw and Chickasaw agreement and the Creek agreement were ratified by Congress under the Curtis Act of June 28, 1898, and the Seminole agreement was ratified on July 1, 1898.

The survey of tribal lands in preparation for allotment had begun in 1897, and the actual process of enrollment occupied the Dawes Commissioners from 1897 through (in the case of the Choctaw and Chickasaw) 1906. The final tribal rolls compiled by the Dawes Commission became the arbiter of tribal membership and the right to share in equitable distribution of tribal resources. By June 30, 1916, 15,794,238 acres had been allotted to members of the Five Tribes.

The process of allotment raised crucial issues both for tribes and for the development of the state of Oklahoma. For the Five Tribes, membership was determined not by the tribes but by the Dawes Commission. The Choctaw were particularly concerned that large numbers of individuals claiming to be Choctaw from Mississippi came forward to lay claims, thus complicating and delaying the final allotment process.

The process made individual allottees of all tribes U.S. citizens, but it also restricted their rights to sell property. For newly established Oklahoma the existence of large amounts of inalienable and nontaxable land placed a significant financial burden on a government striving to fund services to citizens and on entrepreneurs seeking to exploit the resources of the young state. Allotment marked a massive shift from communal to private property. Ultimately, after restrictions on lands of individuals of less than one-half degree of blood were lifted in 1908, a significant amount of Indian land was lost to taxation and sale.

Bibliografija

Kent Carter, Dawesova komisija in dodelitev petih civiliziranih plemen, 1893–1914 (Orem, Utah: Ancestry.com, 1999).

William T. Hagan, Taking Indian Lands: The Cherokee (Jerome) Commission 1889–1893 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003).

D. S. Otis, The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Land, ur. Francis Paul Prucha (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973).

Carl Coke Rister, Land Hunger: David Payne and the Oklahoma Boomers (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1942).

Terry P. Wilson, The Underground Reservation: Osage Oil (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985).

No part of this site may be construed as in the public domain.

Copyright to all articles and other content in the online and print versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History is held by the Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS). This includes individual articles (copyright to OHS by author assignment) and corporately (as a complete body of work), including web design, graphics, searching functions, and listing/browsing methods. Copyright to all of these materials is protected under United States and International law.

Users agree not to download, copy, modify, sell, lease, rent, reprint, or otherwise distribute these materials, or to link to these materials on another web site, without authorization of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Individual users must determine if their use of the Materials falls under United States copyright law's "Fair Use" guidelines and does not infringe on the proprietary rights of the Oklahoma Historical Society as the legal copyright holder of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and part or in whole.

Photo credits: All photographs presented in the published and online versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture are the property of the Oklahoma Historical Society (unless otherwise stated).

Citiranje

The following (as per Čikaški priročnik za slog, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Clara Sue Kidwell, &ldquoAllotment,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=AL011.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.

Zgodovinsko društvo Oklahoma | 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105 | 405-521-2491
Kazalo spletnega mesta | Pišite nam | Privacy | Novinarska soba | Poizvedbe na spletnem mestu


Poglej si posnetek: Get out of my head by Chickasaw Red (December 2021).