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Nephthys na poslikanem perilu

Nephthys na poslikanem perilu


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Slikanje s ploščami

A slikanje na plošči je slika, narejena na ravni plošči iz lesa, bodisi iz enega kosa ali več kosov, združenih skupaj. Dokler platno v 16. stoletju ni postalo bolj priljubljen podporni medij, je bila to normalna oblika podpore za sliko, ki ni na steni (freski) ali velumu, ki je bila uporabljena za miniature v osvetljenih rokopisih in slikah za okvirjanje.


Vsebina

Čeprav iz obdobja predinastike v Egiptu (ok. 6000 - ok. 3150 pr. N. Št.) Ni ohranjenih nobenih zapisov, znanstveniki menijo, da sta pomen fizičnega telesa in njegova ohranjenost nastala tam. To verjetno pojasnjuje, zakaj ljudje tistega časa niso upoštevali običajne prakse kremiranja, temveč so pokopavali mrtve. Nekateri tudi menijo, da so se morda bali, da bodo telesa ponovno vstala, če bodo po smrti ravnali z njimi. [3]

Zgodnja telesa so pokopavali v enostavnih, plitvih ovalnih jamah z nekaj grobnim blagom. Včasih je bilo v isti grob položenih več ljudi in živali. Sčasoma so grobovi postali bolj zapleteni. Nekoč so telesa dajali v pleteno košaro, sčasoma pa telesa v lesene ali terakotne krste. Najnovejši grobovi Egipčanov so bili sarkofagi. Ti grobovi so vsebovali pokopališče, kot so nakit, hrana, igre in nabrušena opornica. [4]

Med prednastičnim obdobjem in dinastijo Ptolomejev se je nenehno osredotočalo na večno življenje in gotovost osebnega obstoja onkraj smrti. To prepričanje v posmrtno življenje se odraža v pokopu grobnih dobrin v grobnicah. Verovanje Egipčanov v posmrtno življenje je postalo znano po vsem starodavnem svetu s trgovino in kulturnim prenosom, ki je vplivalo na druge civilizacije in religije. Zlasti je to prepričanje postalo znano po svileni poti. Veljalo je, da so bili posamezniki sprejeti v posmrtno življenje na podlagi tega, da so tam lahko služili svojemu namenu. Na primer, faraon naj bi bil dovoljen v posmrtno življenje zaradi svoje vloge vladarja starega Egipta, kar bi bil namen, preveden v njegovo posmrtno življenje.

Človeške žrtve, najdene v zgodnjih kraljevskih grobnicah, krepijo zamisel, da bi služile namenu v posmrtnem življenju. Tisti, ki so bili žrtvovani, so verjetno služili faraonu v njegovem posmrtnem življenju. Sčasoma figurice in stenske slike začnejo nadomeščati človeške žrtve. [5] Nekatere od teh figuric so bile morda ustvarjene tako, da so podobne nekaterim ljudem, zato so lahko sledile faraonu po koncu njihovega življenja.

Ne le, da so se nižji sloji zanašali na faraonovo naklonjenost, ampak tudi na plemiške. Verjeli so, da je faraon ob njegovi smrti postal nekakšen bog, ki je nekaterim posameznikom lahko podaril sposobnost posmrtnega življenja. To prepričanje je obstajalo od prednastičnega obdobja do starega kraljestva.

Čeprav so bili preneseni številni uroki iz predhodnih besedil, so nova besedila o krstah dodala tudi nove nove uroke, skupaj z rahlimi spremembami, da bi bilo to novo pogrebno besedilo bolj povezano s plemstvom. [6] V prvem vmesnem obdobju pa je pomen faraona upadel. Pogrebna besedila, ki so bila prej omejena na kraljevsko rabo, so postala bolj dostopna. Faraon ni bil več bog-kralj v smislu, da je bil v naslednjem življenju zaradi svojega statusa tukaj dovoljen le njemu, zdaj je bil le vladar prebivalstva, ki bi se po njegovi smrti izravnalo proti ravnini smrtnikov . [7]

Predzgodovina, najzgodnejši pokopi Urejanje

Prvi pogrebi v Egiptu so znani iz vasi Omari in Maadi na severu, v bližini današnjega Kaira. Prebivalci teh vasi so svoje mrtve pokopavali v preprostem, okroglem grobu z loncem. Telo ni bilo ne obravnavano ne urejeno na poseben način, ki bi se pozneje v zgodovinskem obdobju spremenil. Brez pisnih dokazov je malo informacij o sodobnih prepričanjih o posmrtnem življenju, razen o rednem vključevanju enega samega lonca v grob. Glede na poznejše običaje je bil lonec verjetno namenjen hrani pokojnika. [8]

Predinastično obdobje, razvoj carine Uredi

Pogrebni običaji so se razvili v prednastični dobi iz tistih iz predzgodovine. Sprva so ljudje v obdobju Badarja (4400–3800 pr. N. Št.) Izkopavali okrogle grobove z enim loncem in tako nadaljevali tradicijo omarijevske in maadijske kulture. Do konca predinastičnega obdobja je bilo vse več predmetov, odloženih s telesom v pravokotne grobove, in vse več je dokazov o obredih, ki so jih izvajali Egipčani v obdobju Naqada II (3650–3300 pr. N. Št.). Na tej točki so bila telesa redno razporejena v pokrčenem ali fetalnem položaju z obrazom proti vzhodu vzhajajočemu soncu ali zahodu (ki je bila v tem zgodovinskem obdobju dežela mrtvih). Umetniki so poslikali kozarce s pogrebnimi povorkami in morda ritualnim plesom. Pojavile so se tudi figure golih prsi s ptičjimi obrazi in nogami, skritimi pod krili. Nekateri grobovi so bili bogatejši od drugih, kar kaže na začetke družbene razslojenosti. Spolne razlike pri pokopu so se pojavile z vključitvijo orožja v moške grobove in kozmetičnih palet v grobove žensk. [9]

Egipčani so že do 3.600 pr. [10] [11]

Urejanje zgodnjega dinastičnega obdobja, grobov in krst

Do prve dinastije so bili nekateri Egipčani dovolj bogati, da so gradili grobove nad svojimi pokopi, namesto da bi postavili svoja telesa v preproste jame, izkopane v pesek. V tem obdobju se je razvil pravokotni grob iz blata iz opeke s podzemno grobnico, imenovano mastaba. Te grobnice so imele nišane stene, slog gradnje, imenovan motiv fasade palače, ker so zidovi posnemali tiste, ki obkrožajo kraljevo palačo. Ker so imeli tako grobi tako prebivalci kot tudi kralji, arhitektura nakazuje, da so nekateri bogati ljudje v smrti dosegli povišan status. Kasneje v zgodovinskem obdobju je gotovo, da je bil pokojnik povezan z bogom mrtvih, Ozirisom.

Nagrobno blago se je razširilo na pohištvo, nakit in igre, pa tudi orožje, kozmetične palete in zaloge hrane v okrašenih kozarcih, znanih prej, v preddnastičnem obdobju. Zdaj pa je v najbogatejših grobnicah grobov na tisoče. Le na novo izumljene krste za telo so bile izdelane posebej za grob. Obstaja tudi nekaj nedokončnih dokazov za mumifikacijo. Drugi predmeti v grobnicah, ki so jih uporabljali v vsakdanjem življenju, kažejo, da so Egipčani že v prvi dinastiji pričakovali potrebo v naslednjem življenju. Nadaljnjo kontinuiteto od tega življenja do naslednjega najdemo pri postavitvi grobov: tiste osebe, ki so v svojem življenju služile kralju, so izbrale pokope blizu svojega gospoda. Uporaba stele pred grobom se je začela v prvi dinastiji, kar kaže na željo po individualizaciji groba z imenom pokojnika. [12]

Staro kraljestvo, piramide in mumifikacija Urejanje

V starem kraljestvu so kralji za svoje grobove najprej zgradili piramide, obdane s kamnitimi grobnicami mastaba. Dejstvo, da je bila večina visokih uradnikov tudi kraljevih sorodnikov, nakazuje še eno motivacijo za takšno umestitev: ti kompleksi so bili tudi družinska pokopališča.

Med elito so bila telesa mumificirana, zavita v lanene povoje, včasih prekrite z oblikovanim ometom in položena v kamnite sarkofage ali navadne lesene krste. Konec starega kraljestva so se pojavile tudi maske mumij v kartonaži (perilo, namočeno v omet, modelirano in pobarvano). Canopic kozarci so zdaj držali svoje notranje organe. Amuleti iz zlata, fajanse in karneol so se prvič pojavili v različnih oblikah za zaščito različnih delov telesa. Obstajajo tudi prvi dokazi o napisih v krstah elite v času starega kraljestva. Pogosto so bili na stene vtisnjeni reliefi vsakdanjih predmetov, ki so dopolnjevali nagrobne predmete, zaradi česar so bili na voljo s svojo predstavitvijo.

Nova lažna vrata so bila nedelujoča kamnita skulptura vrat, ki so jo našli v kapeli ali na zunanji strani mastabe in so služili kot prostor za daritve in molitve za pokojnika. Kip pokojnika so zdaj vključevali v grobnice in ga uporabljali za obredne namene. Pogrebne komore nekaterih zasebnikov so poleg okrasja kapelic dobile tudi prve okraske. Na koncu starega kraljestva so okrasi pogrebne komore upodabljali daritve, ne pa tudi ljudi. [13]

Prvo vmesno obdobje, ureditev regionalnih sprememb

Politične razmere v prvem vmesnem obdobju z mnogimi središči moči se odražajo v številnih lokalnih stilih umetnosti in pokopavanja v tem času. Številni regionalni slogi za okrasitev krst omogočajo enostavno razlikovanje njihovega izvora. Na primer, nekatere krste imajo napise v eni vrstici, mnogi slogi pa vključujejo upodobitev Wadjet oči (človeško oko z oznakami sokola). Obstajajo tudi regionalne razlike v hieroglifih, ki se uporabljajo za okrasitev krst.

Občasno so imeli moški v grobu orodje in orožje, nekatere ženske pa nakit in kozmetične predmete, kot so ogledala. Žrtev so včasih vključevali v ženske grobnice, morda bi jih morali obravnavati kot orodje za pripravo hrane v naslednjem svetu, tako kot orožje v moških grobovih pomeni, da so moški dodeljeni vlogi v bojih. [14]

Srednje kraljestvo, Vsebina nove grobnice Uredi

Pogrebni običaji v Srednjem kraljestvu odražajo nekatere politične trende tega obdobja. V času enajste dinastije so bili grobovi posekani v gorah Teb, ki obkrožajo kraljevo grobnico, ali na lokalnih pokopališčih v zgornjem in srednjem Egiptu. Tebe so bile domače mesto kraljev enajste dinastije in so jih tam raje pokopali. Toda v dvanajsti dinastiji so visoki uradniki služili kraljem nove družine, ki zdaj vlada s severa v Lištu, ti kralji in njihovi visoki uradniki so raje pokopali v mastabi v bližini piramid, ki so pripadali njihovim gospodarjem. Poleg tega je razlika v topografiji med Tebami in Lishtom povzročila razliko v tipu grobov: na severu plemiči gradijo grobove mastabe na ravnih puščavskih ravnicah, medtem ko so na jugu lokalni veljaki še naprej izkopavali grobnice v gori.

Za tiste, ki so bili med enajsto dinastijo nižji od kraljevih dvorjanov, so bile grobnice enostavnejše. Krste so lahko preproste lesene škatle s telesom, ki je bilo mumificirano in zavito v laneno ali preprosto zavito brez mumifikacije, ter dodajanje maske iz mumije iz kartonaže, kar je bil običaj, ki se je ohranil vse do grško-rimskega obdobja. Nekatere grobnice so vključevale gozdnate čevlje in preprost kip ob telesu. V enem pokopu je bilo le dvanajst hlebov kruha, goveja stegna in kozarec piva za hrano. Nakit bi lahko vključili, vendar so le v redkih primerih predmete velike vrednosti našli v neelitnih grobovih. Nekateri pokopi so še naprej vključevali lesene modele, ki so bili priljubljeni v prvem vmesnem obdobju. V grobnicah tega obdobja so našli lesene makete čolnov, prizore proizvodnje hrane, obrtnike in delavnice ter poklice, kot so pisarji ali vojaki.

Nekatere pravokotne krste dvanajste dinastije imajo kratke napise in upodobitve najpomembnejših daritev, ki jih je pokojnik potreboval. Za moške so bili upodobljeni predmeti orožje in simboli službe ter hrana. Ženske krste so prikazovale ogledala, sandale in kozarce s hrano in pijačo. Nekatere krste so vsebovale besedila, ki so bila poznejša besedila kraljevskih piramidnih besedil.

Zdi se, da druga vrsta faience modela pokojnika kot mumije predvideva uporabo shabti figurice (imenovane tudi shawabti ali an ushabti) kasneje v dvanajsti dinastiji. Te zgodnje figurice nimajo besedila, ki bi postavilo sliko na mesto pokojnika, ki ga najdemo v kasnejših figuricah. Najbogatejši ljudje so imeli kamnite figurice, za katere se zdi, da predvidevajo shabtis, čeprav so jih nekateri učenjaki videli kot nadomestke mumije in ne kot služabnike.

V poznejši dvanajsti dinastiji so se v pokopih zgodile pomembne spremembe, ki so morda odražale upravne spremembe, ki jih je uvedel kralj Senwosret III (1836–1818 pr. N. Št.). Telo so zdaj redno polagali na hrbet in ne na bok, kot so to počeli že tisočletja. Besedila o krstah in leseni modeli so izginili iz novih grobov tega obdobja, medtem ko so bili srbski skarabeji in figurice v obliki mumij pogosto vključeni v pokope, kot bi bili v preostali egipčanski zgodovini. Dekoracija krst je bila poenostavljena. Trinajsta dinastija je doživela še eno spremembo v dekoraciji. Na severu in jugu so našli različne motive, ki so odraz takratne decentralizirane oblasti. Prav tako se je znatno povečalo število pokopov v enem grobu, kar je bil v zgodnjih obdobjih redek pojav. Zdi se, da je družina več generacij ponovno uporabila eno grobnico, ko je bilo bogastvo pravičneje razpršeno. [15]

Drugo vmesno obdobje, pokopi tujcev Uredi

Znani grobovi iz drugega vmesnega obdobja razkrivajo prisotnost neegipčanov, pokopanih v državi. Na severu grobovi, povezani s Hiksi, zahodno semitskim ljudstvom, ki vlada severu od severovzhodne delte, vključujejo majhne zidane zidane strukture, ki vsebujejo telo, lončene posode, bodalo v moških grobovih in pogosto bližnji pokop oslovcev. Enostavni grobovi v obliki pekača v različnih delih države naj bi pripadali nubijskim vojakom. Takšni grobovi odražajo zelo starodavne običaje in vsebujejo plitke, okrogle jame, skrčena telesa in minimalno ponudbo hrane v lončkih. Občasno vključitev egipčanskih materialov, ki jih je mogoče identificirati, iz drugega vmesnega obdobja daje edine znake, ki te pokope ločujejo od prednastičnih in celo zgodnejših obdobij. [16]

Novo kraljestvo, nameni novih objektov Uredi

Večina elitnih grobnic v Novem kraljestvu so bile kamnite komore. Kralji so bili pokopani v večstanovanjskih, skalnatih grobovih v Dolini kraljev in ne več v piramidah. Duhovniki so zanje izvajali pogrebne obrede v kamnitih templjih, zgrajenih na zahodnem bregu Nila nasproti Teb. Po trenutnih dokazih se zdi, da je osemnajsta dinastija zadnje obdobje, v katerem so Egipčani v svoje grobnice od devetnajste dinastije redno vključevali več predmetov iz svojega vsakdanjega življenja, grobovi so vsebovali manj predmetov iz vsakdanjega življenja in vključevali predmete, izdelane posebej za naslednji svet . Tako je sprememba iz osemnajste v devetnajsto dinastijo tvorila ločnico v pokopaliških tradicijah: osemnajsta dinastija se je v svojih običajih bolj spominjala bližnje preteklosti, medtem ko je devetnajsta dinastija predvidevala običaje v poznem obdobju.

Ljudje elitnih uvrstitev v osemnajsto dinastijo so v svoje grobnice postavili pohištvo ter oblačila in druge predmete, predmete, ki so jih nedvomno uporabljali v življenju na zemlji. V teh grobnicah so bile postelje, vzglavniki, stoli, stolčki, usnjene sandale, nakit, glasbila in lesene skrinje. Čeprav so bili vsi našteti predmeti namenjeni eliti, mnogi revni ljudje v svoje grobnice niso vložili nič drugega kot orožje in kozmetiko.

Nobena elitna grobnica ne preživi neopažena iz obdobja Ramesside. V tem obdobju so umetniki okrasili grobnice, ki pripadajo eliti, z več prizorov verskih dogodkov in ne vsakdanjega prizora, ki je bil priljubljen že od starega kraljestva. Pogreb sam, pogrebni obrok z več sorodniki, čaščenje bogov, celo figure v podzemlju so bili podložniki v elitnih grobnih dekoracijah. Večina predmetov, najdenih v grobnicah iz obdobja Ramesside, je bila narejena za posmrtno življenje. Poleg nakita, ki bi ga lahko uporabljali tudi v življenju, so bili predmeti v grobovih Ramesside izdelani za naslednji svet. [17]

Urejanje tretjega vmesnega obdobja

Čeprav je politična struktura Novega kraljestva propadla ob koncu dvajsete dinastije, večina pokopov v enaindvajseti dinastiji neposredno odraža razvoj dogodkov iz prejšnjega obdobja. Na začetku tega časa so bili reliefi podobni tistim iz obdobja Ramesside. Šele na koncu tretjega vmesnega obdobja so se začele pojavljati nove pogrebne prakse v poznem obdobju.

O grobnicah iz tega obdobja je malo znanega. Zdi se, da je že samo pomanjkanje okraskov v grobnicah veliko bolj dodelano okrasitev krst. Preostalo grobno blago tega obdobja je razmeroma poceni shabtis, tudi ko je bila lastnica kraljica ali princesa. [18]

Pozno obdobje, monumentalnost in vrnitev k tradicijam Uredi

Pokopi v poznem obdobju bi lahko prvič uporabili obsežne grobnice, podobne templjem, zgrajene za ne-kraljevsko elito. Toda večina grobnic v tem obdobju je bila v jaških potopljenih v puščavska tla. Poleg lepih kipov in reliefov, ki odražajo slog starega kraljestva, je bila večina grobnih dobrin posebej izdelanih za grob. Krste so še naprej nosile verska besedila in prizore. Nekatere gredi so bile prilagojene z uporabo stele z molitvami pokojnika in imenom na njej. Shabtis v faience za vse razrede so znani. Canopic kozarci, čeprav pogosto ne delujejo, so bili še vedno vključeni. Pogosto so bili prisotni tudi palice in žezla, ki so predstavljala pokojnikovo pisarno v življenju. Najdena je bila lesena figura boga Ozirisa [19] ali sestavljenega božanstva Ptah-Sokar-Ozirisa [20] [21], skupaj s srčnimi skarabeji, zlatimi in fajančnimi primerki djed-stebrov, amuleti Eye of Horus , figure bogov in podobe pokojnikov ba. Orodja za ritual groba, imenovano "odpiranje ust", in "čarobne opeke" na štirih točkah kompasa. [22]

Ptolemejsko obdobje, helenistični vplivi Uredi

Po osvojitvi Egipta s strani Aleksandra Velikega so državi vladali potomci Ptolomeja, enega njegovih generalov. Makedonska grška družina je gojila kulturo, ki je spodbujala helenistični in staroegipčanski način življenja: medtem ko je veliko grško govorečih ljudi, ki živijo v Aleksandriji, sledilo običajem celinske Grčije, so drugi sprejeli egipčanske običaje, medtem ko so Egipčani še naprej sledili svojim že starodavnim običajem.

Znanih je zelo malo ptolemejskih grobnic. Lep tempeljski kip tega obdobja nakazuje možnost grobniške skulpture in ponujanja miz. Egiptovski elitni pokopi so še vedno uporabljali kamnite sarkofage. Knjige mrtvih in amuleti so bili še vedno priljubljeni. [23]

Rimsko obdobje, Rimski vplivi Uredi

Rimljani so Egipt osvojili leta 30 pred našim štetjem, s čimer so končali vladavino zadnje in najbolj znane članice dinastije Ptolomejev, Kleopatre VII. V času rimske vladavine se je razvil elitni hibridni pokopališki slog, ki vključuje egipčanske in rimske elemente.

Nekatere ljudi so mumificirali in zavili v lanene povoje. Sprednji del mumije je bil pogosto naslikan z izbiro tradicionalnih egipčanskih simbolov. Mumijam bi lahko dodali maske v tradicionalnem egipčanskem ali rimskem slogu. Druga možnost je bil portret mumije v rimskem slogu, izveden v enkaustiki (pigment, suspendiran v vosku) na leseni plošči. Včasih so bile noge mumije pokrite. Alternativa temu je bil popoln pokrov z egipčanskimi motivi, vendar portret v rimskem slogu. Grobnice elite lahko vključujejo tudi lep nakit. [24]

Grški zgodovinar Herodot (5. stoletje pr. N. Št.) In Diodorus Sikulus (1. stoletje pr. N. Št.) Podajata najpopolnejša ohranjena dokazila o tem, kako so stari Egipčani pristopili k ohranjanju mrtvega telesa. [25] Pred balzamiranjem ali ohranitvijo mrtvega telesa, da bi odložili ali preprečili propadanje, so žalujoči, še posebej, če je imel pokojnik visok status, svoje obraze prekrili z blatom in paradirali po mestu, medtem ko so se tolkli v prsi. [25] Če je žena moškega z visokim statusom umrla, njenega telesa niso balzamirali, dokler niso minili trije ali štirje dnevi, ker je to preprečilo zlorabo trupla. [25] V primeru, da se je kdo utopil ali napadel, je bilo na njihovo telo izvedeno balzamiranje na sveti in previden način. Ta vrsta smrti je bila obravnavana kot čaščena in le duhovniki so se lahko dotikali telesa. [25]

Po balzamiranju so morda žalujoči v času budnosti opravili obred, ki je vključeval obsodbo, pri čemer so prostovoljci igrali vlogo Ozirisa in njegovega sovražnega brata Seta, pa tudi bogov Izide, Nephthys, Horusa, Anubisa in Thotha . [26] Kot pravi zgodba, je bil Set zavidljiv svojemu bratu Ozirisu, ker je pred njim dobil prestol, zato ga je načrtoval, da ga ubije. Ozirisova žena, Isis, se je s Setom borila sem in tja, da bi osvojila Ozirisovo telo, in v tem boju se je Ozirisov duh izgubil. [27] Kljub temu je Oziris vstal in bil ponovno vzpostavljen kot bog. [28] Poleg ponovitve Ozirisove sodbe so po bližnji nekropoli potekale številne pogrebne procesije, ki so simbolizirale različna sveta potovanja. [26]

Pogrebna povorka do groba je na splošno vključevala govedo, ki je vleklo telo v nosilcih za sani, s prijatelji in družino. Med procesijo je duhovnik zažgal kadilo in pred truplo polil mleko. [26] Ob prihodu v grobnico in v bistvu naslednje življenje je duhovnik opravil slovesnost ob odprtju ust na pokojniku. Pokojnikova glava je bila obrnjena proti jugu, telo pa so si predstavljali kot kip pokojnika. Odpiranje usta pokojnika je pomenilo, da osebi omogoča, da govori in se brani med sodnim postopkom. Nato so pokojniku ponudili blago za zaključek slovesnosti. [26]

Uredi balzamiranje

Ohranjanje mrtvega telesa je bilo ključnega pomena, če je pokojnik želel priložnost za sprejem v posmrtno življenje. V starem egipčanskem konceptu duše ka, ki je predstavljala vitalnost, zapusti telo, ko oseba umre. [29] Samo če je telo balzamirano na poseben način ka vrnitev v telo pokojnika in ponovni porod. [25] Balzamiranci so telo prejeli po smrti in ga na sistematičen način pripravili za mumifikacijo. Družina in prijatelji pokojnika so imeli na izbiro možnosti, ki so se gibale v ceni za pripravo telesa, podobno kot v sodobnih pogrebnih hišah. Nato so balzamiranci pospremili telo do ibw, prevedeno v »kraj čiščenja«, šotor, v katerem so oprali telo, in nato na nefer, "Hiša lepote", kjer je potekala mumifikacija. [25]

Postopek mumifikacije Uredi

Da bi lahko živeli vso večnost in bili predstavljeni pred Ozirisom, je bilo treba telo pokojnika ohraniti z mumifikacijo, tako da se je duša lahko ponovno združila z njo in uživala v posmrtnem življenju. Glavni proces mumifikacije je bil ohraniti telo z dehidracijo z uporabo natrona, naravne soli, ki jo najdemo v Wadi Natrunu. Telo je bilo izcedeno iz tekočine in ohranjeno koža, lasje in mišice. [30] Postopek mumifikacije naj bi trajal do sedemdeset dni. Med tem postopkom so posebni duhovniki delali kot balzamiralci, ko so zdravili in zavili truplo pokojnika v pripravah na pokop.

Postopek mumifikacije je bil na voljo vsem, ki so si to privoščili. Veljalo je, da tudi tisti, ki si tega procesa ne morejo privoščiti, še vedno uživajo v posmrtnem življenju s pravim recitiranjem urokov. Mumifikacija je obstajala v treh različnih procesih, od najdražjih, zmerno dragih in najbolj poenostavljenih ali najcenejših. [25] Najbolj klasična, pogosta in najdražja metoda mumifikacije sega v 18. dinastijo. Prvi korak je bil odstraniti notranje organe in tekočino, da telo ne bi propadlo. Ko so jih položili na mizo, so balzamiki odstranili možgane s postopkom, imenovanim excerebration, tako da so skozi nosnico vstavili kovinski kavelj in ga prebili v možgane. S kljuko so odstranili, kolikor so lahko, ostalo pa utekočinili z drogami in odcedili. [25] Izločili so možgane, ker so mislili, da srce razmišlja vse. Naslednji korak je bil odstraniti notranje organe, pljuča, jetra, želodec in črevesje ter jih položiti v kozarce s pokrovi, podobnimi glavam zaščitnih božanstev, štirih Horusovih sinov: Imsetyja, Hapyja, Duamutefa in Qebhseneuf. Imsety je imel človeško glavo in je varoval jetra. Hapy je imel opičje glave in varoval pljuča. Duamutef je imel glavo šakala in varoval želodec. Qebhseneuf je imel jastrebovo glavo in je varoval tanko in debelo črevo. [25] Včasih so štiri kozarce z nadstreškom postavili v nadstrešek in jih zakopali z mumificiranim telesom. Kroglasta skrinja je spominjala na "miniaturno krsto" in je bila zapleteno poslikana. Stari Egipčani so verjeli, da se lahko z zakopavanjem pokojnika s svojimi organi ponovno pridružijo njim v posmrtnem življenju. [26] Včasih so bili organi očiščeni in očiščeni ter nato vrnjeni v telo. [25] Telesno votlino so nato sprali in očistili z vinom in vrsto začimb. Telo so zašili z aromatičnimi rastlinami in začimbami, ki so ostale v notranjosti. [25] Srce je ostalo v telesu, ker bi ga v sodni dvorani stehtali ob perju Maat. Po umivanju telesa z vinom so ga napolnili z vrečkami natrona. Postopek dehidracije je trajal 40 dni. [27]

Drugi del postopka je trajal 30 dni. To je bil čas, ko se je pokojnik spremenil v polbožansko bitje, vse kar je ostalo v telesu od prvega dela pa so odstranili, sledilo je prvo nanašanje vina in nato olja. Olja so bila v ritualne namene, pa tudi za preprečevanje zlomov okončin in kosti med zavijanjem. Telo je bilo včasih obarvano z zlato smolo, ki je ščitila telo pred bakterijami in žuželkami. Poleg tega je ta praksa temeljila na prepričanju, da imajo božanska bitja zlato meso. Nato je bilo telo zavito v perilo, narezano na trakove z amuleti, medtem ko je duhovnik molil molitve in kadil. Lan je bil pritrjen na telo z gumi, v nasprotju z lepilom. [25] Preliv je telesu zagotavljal fizično zaščito pred vremenskimi vplivi, odvisno od tega, kako bogata je bila pokojnikova družina, pa so pokojnika lahko oblekli z okrašeno pogrebno masko in plaščem. [25] Posebno pozornost so namenili glavi, rokam, nogam in genitalijam, saj sodobne mumije na teh območjih odkrivajo dodatne ovoje in obloge. [31] Mumije so prepoznali po majhnih, lesenih imenskih oznakah, ki so bile običajno vezane okoli pokojnikovega vratu. [25] 70-dnevni proces je povezan z Ozirisom in dolžino zvezde Sothis, ki je bila odsotna z neba. [28]

Druga, zmerno draga možnost za mumifikacijo ni vključevala reza v trebušno votlino ali odstranitve notranjih organov. Namesto tega so balzamiki v telo vbrizgali olje cedre, kar je preprečilo, da bi tekočina zapustila telo. Telo je bilo nato določeno število dni položeno v natron. Olje so nato izločili iz telesa, z njim pa so prišli notranji organi, želodec in črevesje, ki jih je cedrovo olje utekočinilo. Meso se je raztopilo v natronu, od mrtvega telesa pa so ostale le koža in kosti. Ostanke vrnejo družini. [25] Najcenejša, najosnovnejša metoda mumifikacije, ki so jo pogosto izbrali revni, je vključevala čiščenje pokojnikovih notranjih organov in nato polaganje telesa v natron 70 dni. Telo so nato vrnili družini. [25]

Mumifikacija živali Edit

Živali so bile mumificirane v starem Egiptu iz več razlogov. Poleg njih so pokopali gospodinjske hišne ljubljenčke, ki so imeli lastnikom poseben pomen. Vendar na živali niso gledali le kot na hišne ljubljenčke, ampak kot inkarnacije bogov. Zato so bile te živali pokopane v čast starodavnih egipčanskih božanstev. Nekatere mumifikacije živali so bile opravljene kot sveta daritev bogovom, ki so pogosto imeli obliko živali, kot so mačke, žabe, krave, pavijani in jastrebi. Druge živali so bile mumificirane z namenom, da ljudem ponudijo hrano v posmrtnem življenju. Poleg tega so bili skupaj z njimi pokopani hišni ljubljenčki, ki so imeli lastnikom posebno pomembno.

V grobnicah po Dayr al-Barsha, koptski vasi v srednjem Egiptu, so odkrili več vrst ostankov živali. Ostanki, najdeni v jaških in pokopaliških komorah, so bili psi, lisice, orlove sove, netopirji, glodalci in kače. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da gre za posameznike, ki so po naključju vstopili v depozite. Drugi najdeni ostanki živali so bili pogostejši in se pojavljajo pogosteje kot tisti posamezniki, ki so se po nesreči ujeli v teh grobnicah. Ti ostanki so vključevali številne kosti gazele in goveda, pa tudi teleta in koze, za katere se je domnevalo, da so posledica človeškega vedenja. To je bilo posledica ugotovitve, da so bili nekateri ostanki spremenjeni, manjkajoči ali ločeni od svojih prvotnih okostij. Tudi na teh ostankih so bile sledi barve in odseki, vidni zlasti pri lobanjah in stopalih goveda. Na podlagi tega je naravno okolje grobnic Dayr al-Barsha in dejstvo, da so bili najdeni le nekateri deli teh živali, mogoče izključiti možnost naravnega odlaganja, vzrok teh ostankov pa najverjetneje nastane z žrtvovanjem živali, saj so bile očitno izbrane le glava, prednja noga in stopala za odlaganje v grobnice. Po raziskavi Christopherja Eyreja meso goveda pravzaprav ni bilo del vsakodnevne prehrane v starem Egiptu, saj so meso uživali le med praznovanji, vključno s pogrebnimi in mrliškimi rituali ter prakso oskrbe pokojnika z darovanjem goveda. se vrnemo v prednastično obdobje. [32]

Po pripravi mumije bi jo moral simbolično ponovno animirati duhovnik. Otvoritev ustne slovesnosti je vodil duhovnik, ki je izgovoril urok in se dotaknil mumije ali sarkofaga s slovesnim adzejem - bakrenim ali kamnitim rezilom. Ta slovesnost je zagotovila, da je mumija v posmrtnem življenju lahko dihala in govorila. Na podoben način je duhovnik lahko izgovarjal uroke, da bi oživil mumijeve roke, noge in druge dele telesa.

Duhovniki, morda celo kraljev naslednik, so truplo premaknili skozi nasip do mrliškega templja. Tu so recitirali molitve, kadili in izvajali več ritualov, ki so pomagali pri pripravi kralja na njegovo zadnjo pot. Kraljeva mumija je bila nato postavljena v piramido skupaj z ogromno količino hrane, pijače, pohištva, oblačil in nakita, ki naj bi jih uporabili v posmrtnem življenju. Piramida je bila zapečatena, da vanjo nikoli več ne bi vstopil nihče. Vendar se je kraljeva duša lahko premikala po pokopališču, kot je želela. Po pogrebu kralj postane bog in ga lahko častijo v templjih poleg njegove piramide. [33]

V starih časih so Egipčane zakopali neposredno v zemljo. Ker je bilo vreme tako vroče in suho, je bilo telo lahko ohranjeno. Običajno so telesa zakopali v položaju ploda. [34] Stari Egipčani so verjeli, da je pokop pomemben del pošiljanja ljudi v udobno posmrtno življenje. Egipčani so verjeli, da lahko pokojnik po smrti še vedno čuti takšno jezo ali pa ima zamer kot živi. Pokojniki naj bi podpirali in pomagali tudi svoji živi družini. [35] They believed that the Ba in Ka are what enabled the dead to support their family. The Ba made it possible for an invisible twin to be released from the body to support the family, while the Ka would recognize the twin when it would come back to the body. [36] With the ideas of the dead being so valuable, it is clear why the Egyptians treated the deceased with respect. The less fortunate Egyptians still wanted their family members to be given a proper burial. A typical burial would be held in the desert where the family would wrap the body in a cloth and bury it with everyday objects for the dead to be comfortable. [37] Although some could afford mummification, most commoners were not mummified due to the expense. [38] Often the poor are found in mass graves where their bodies are not mummified and only with minimal household objects, spread out throughout the desert, often in areas that are now populated. [ potreben citat ]

The tomb was the housing for the deceased and served two crucial functions: the tomb provided infinite protection for the deceased to rest, as well as a place for mourners to perform rituals in which aided the deceased into eternal life. Therefore, the ancient Egyptians were very serious about the way in which the tombs were built. [39] Two hallmarks of the tomb included: a burial chamber, which housed the physical body of the deceased (inside a coffin) as well as funerary objects deemed most important, and a "cult place," which resembled a chapel where mourners, family, and friends could congregate. The tomb of a king included a full temple, instead of a chapel. [39]

Typically, the tomb of a deceased person was located somewhere close by their home community. The ancient Egyptians opted to bury the deceased in land that was not particularly fertile or useful for vegetation. Therefore, tombs were mostly built in desert areas. Tombs were usually built near each other and rarely stood alone. For a deceased king, however, the tomb was located in a place of utmost sacredness. [39]

In the Prehistoric Egypt, bodies were buried in deserts because they would naturally be preserved by dehydration. The "graves" were small oval or rectangular pits dug in the sand. They could give the body of the deceased in a tight position on its left side alongside a few jars of food and drink and slate palettes with magical religious spells. The size of graves eventually increased according to status and wealth. The dry, desert conditions were a benefit in ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the complex burial preparations that the wealthy had.

The simple graves evolved into mudbrick structures called mastabas. Royal mastabas later developed into step pyramids and then "true pyramids." [40] As soon as a king took the throne he would start to build his pyramid. Rituals of the burial, including the "Opening of the mouth ceremony" took place at the Valley Temple. [33] [41] While a pyramid's large size was made to protect against robbery, it may also be connected to a religious belief about the sun god, Ra. [42]

A majority of cemeteries were located on the west bank of the Nile, which was metaphorically viewed as "the realm of the dead." The tomb was said to represent the deceased's place in the cosmos, which ultimately depended on the social class of the deceased. If the deceased was of a notably high-class, they were buried near the king, whereas middle and lower class individuals were simply buried near the communities in which they had lived. [39] In many cases, the tombs of the high-class were situated in accordance with the tombs of the lower classes so that they would be viewed as a "focal point." For example, one burial site was designed so that the tombs of the governors were placed alongside the slope of a hill, whereas the tombs of the governor's attendants were placed at the foot of the hill. [39]

After having been preserved, the mummy was placed into a coffin. Although the coffins that housed the deceased bodies were made simply of wood, they were intricately painted and designed to suit each individual. During the Old Kingdom, the following was included on each coffin: the title of the deceased, a list of offerings, a false compartment through which ka could pass through, and painted eyes so that the deceased could look through the coffin. [43] The decorations on the coffin usually fit the deceased's status.

During the Middle Kingdom, the coffin was treated as if it were a "miniature tomb" and was painted and inscribed like so. Goddesses Isis and Nephthys were painted on the coffins, and were said to guard the deceased in the afterlife. Along the sides of the coffins, the four sons of Horus were painted, amongst other gods. Prayers were often inscribed on the coffins as well. [43]

Anthropoid coffins soon emerged, which were tailored to the contour of the deceased's body. The deceased's face and hair was painted onto the coffin so to personalize it further. [43] A sarcophagus, which is a large, stone container, was used to house the coffin, and provide supplementary protection to the dead body. The Ancient Egyptians translated the word "sarcophagus" to mean "possessor of life," and therefore, the sarcophagus would aid the deceased into the afterlife. [44]

One of the funerary practices followed by the Egyptians was preparing properly for the afterlife. Ka, the vital force within the Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul, would not return to the deceased body if embalming was not carried out in the proper fashion. [29] In this case, the body decayed, and possibly became unrecognizable, which rendered the afterlife unattainable for the deceased person. [25] If the proper precautions were not taken, damnation would occur. Damnation meant that Egyptians would not experience the glories of the afterlife where they became a deified figure and would be welcomed by the Gods. [45] Instead, damnation was depicted in the books of the underworld. It was a place of opposites chaos, fire, and struggle. [45] Different pages of the books of the underworld depict different perspectives of what happens during damnation. It discusses cutting out humanity and individuality from the person and reversing the cosmic order. [45]

The idea of judgement went as follows: in order to be considered for the admittance into the afterlife, those who died were obligated to undergo a multi-step judgement by certain gods. [39] The concept and belief in judgement is outlined in the Book of the Dead, a funerary text of the New Kingdom. The Book of the Dead is composed of spells relating to the deceased and the afterlife. Spell 125, in particular, is understood to be delivered by the deceased at the outset of the judgement process. [39]

The visual picture of what judgement looks like has been discovered through ancient Egyptian ruins and artefacts. The procedure was depicted as follows: the deceased's heart was weighed in comparison to the feather of Maat, while Ammit awaited to eat the heart (if the deceased was found to be a sinner). [39] Osiris was the judge (among others), and represented an ideal output of the judgement process for the deceased who entered his judgement hall. This is because he resurrected and regained his godly status after he was justified against his brother Set, who wrongly murdered him. [28] The deceased pleaded to Osiris that they had not committed sin, which is known as a "negative confession." [28] The forty-two Assessors of Maat judged how virtuous the life of the deceased was, and this represented the principal element of the deceased entering the afterlife. After passing judgement, the family and friends of the deceased celebrated them and boasted about their righteousness to attain entry into the afterlife. [25]

Many mummies were provided with some form of funerary literature to take with them to the afterlife. Most funerary literature consists of lists of spells and instructions for navigating the afterlife. During the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh had access to this material, which scholars refer to as the Pyramid Texts. The Pyramid Texts are a collection of spells to assure the royal resurrection and protect the pharaoh from various malignant influences. The Pharaoh Unas was the first to use this collection of spells, as he and a few subsequent pharaohs had them carved on the walls of their pyramids. [46] These texts were individually chosen from a larger bank of spells.

In the First Intermediate Period and in the Middle Kingdom, some of the Pyramid Text spells also are found in burial chambers of high officials and on many coffins, where they begin to evolve into what scholars call the Coffin Texts. In this period, the nobles and many non-royal Egyptians began to have access to funerary literature. Although many spells from the earlier texts were carried over, the new coffin texts also had additional spells, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more fit for the nobility. [6]

In the New Kingdom, the Coffin Texts became the Book of the Dead, or the Funeral Papyri, and would last through the Late Kingdom. The text in these books was divided according to chapters/ spells, which were almost two-hundred in number. Each one of these texts was individualized for the deceased, though to varying degrees. If the person was rich enough, then they could commission their own personal version of the text that would include only the spells that they wanted. However, if one was not so wealthy, then one had to make do with the pre-made versions that had spaces left for the name of the deceased.

If the scribe ran out of room while doing the transcription, he would just stop the spell wherever he was and would not continue. [47] It is not until the Twenty-sixth Dynasty that there began to be any regulation of the order or even the number of spells that were to be included in the Book of the Dead. At this time, the regulation is set at 192 spells to be placed in the book, with certain ones holding the same place at all times. [48] This makes it seem as if the order of the texts was not what was important, so the person could place them in an order that he was comfortable with, but rather that it was what was written that mattered.

Although the types of burial goods changed throughout ancient Egyptian history, their purpose to protect the deceased and provide sustenance in the afterlife remained.

From the earliest periods of Egyptian history, all Egyptians were buried with at least some goods that they thought were necessary after death. At a minimum, these consisted of everyday objects such as bowls, combs, and other trinkets, along with food. Wealthier Egyptians could afford to be buried with jewelry, furniture, and other valuables, which made them targets of tomb robbers. In the early Dynastic Period, tombs were filled with daily life objects, such as furniture, jewelry and other valuables. They also contained many stone and pottery vessels. [49] One important factor in the development of Ancient Egyptian tombs was the need of storage space for funerary goods.

As burial customs developed in the Old Kingdom, wealthy citizens were buried in wooden or stone coffins. However, the number of burial goods declined. They were often just a set of copper models, tools and vessels. [50] Starting in the First Intermediate period, wooden models became very popular burial goods. These wooden models often depict everyday activities that the deceased expected to continue doing in the afterlife. Also, a type of rectangular coffin became the standard, being brightly painted and often including an offering formula. Objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs during this period.

At the end of the Middle Kingdom, new object types were introduced into burials, such as the first shabtis and the first heart scarabs. Shabtis were little clay statues made to perform tasks on command for the pharaoh. Now objects of daily use appear in tombs again, often magical items already employed for protecting the living. Scarabs (beetles) collect animal dung and roll it into little balls. To the Egyptians, these balls looked like the life-giving Sun, so they hoped that scarabs would bring them long life. Scarabs have been found in tombs and graves. [51]

In the New Kingdom, some of the old burial customs changed. For example, an anthropoid coffin shape became standardized, and the deceased were provided with a small shabti statue, which the Egyptians believed would perform work for them in the afterlife. Elite burials were often filled with objects of daily use. Under Ramesses II and later all daily life objects disappear from tombs. They most often only contained a selection of items especially made for the burial. Also, in later burials, the numbers of shabti statues increased in some burials, numbering more than four hundred statues. In addition to these shabti statues, the deceased could be buried with many different types of magical figurines to protect them from harm.

Funerary boats were a part of some ancient Egyptian burials. [52] Boats played a major role in Egyptian religion because they were conceived as the main means by which the gods traveled across the sky and through to the netherworld. One type of boat used at funerals was for making pilgrimages to holy sites such as Abydos. A large funerary boat, for example, was found near the pyramid of the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khufu. The funerary boats were usually made of wood the Egyptians used a collection of papyrus reeds and tied them together with the wood very tightly. [53] The most common route for funerary boats was the River Nile to the afterlife. The boat carried the coffin and often had a dog in the boat since they believed a dog would lead the deceased to the afterlife. [54] The boats usually measured about 20 feet or longer. These however did not match those of the great pharaohs like Pharaoh Khufu (who built the Great Pyramid). His funerary boat was approximately 144 foot long with 12 oars. Common funerary boats were smaller sized with few oars. [55]

At the Ure Museum, there is an Egyptian funerary boat on display that represents a typical tomb offering. This boat symbolizes the transport of the dead from life to the afterlife. In Ancient Egypt death was seen as a boat journey. More specifically, it was seen as a trip across their River Nile that joined the North and South. This funerary boat offering was added to the museum's collection in 1923 from the Liverpool Institute of Archaeology from the Tomb of the Officials at Beni Hassan.

Through the study of mummies themselves in addition to ancient writers and modern scientists, a better understanding of the Ancient Egyptian mummification process is promoted. The majority of what is known to be true about the mummification process is based on the writing of early historians who carefully recorded the processes-- one of which was Herodotus. Now, modern day archaeologists are using the writings of early historians as a basis for their study. The advancement of new technology including x-rays has allowed for the analysis of mummies without destroying the elaborate outer wrappings of the body. In addition to the use of x-rays, autopsies are also being performed in order to gain a better understanding of the diseases suffered by Ancient Egyptians as well as the treatments used for these diseases. A pregnant mummy sheds light on pregnancy complications and prenatal care and treatments. [56] [57] In learning their age of death, experts are able to create a timeline of the dates regarding the ruling of Egyptian kings. In looking at the bones of the mummified bodies, experts get a better idea of the average height and life span. Studying Ancient Egyptian Mummies, archaeologists are able to learn about the past.


All the times artists used blood for radical work

Blood drips with symbolism. Blood animates the veins of the living, and through its sacrificial letting, can connect us with the sacred. Mesoamerican cultures drenched the earth with ritualistic blood shedding Catholic ceremonies transform wine into the blood of Christ. Despite its consecrated role in religion and ritual, within our modern institutions blood has become a hazardous pathogen, a dirty disease-carrier. Blood has been sanitised from most of our daily doings the risk and power of blood flows quarantined in our veins.

Artists use blood in their work to physicalise its stakes, to add to its aura. There’s something risky about using blood, something dangerous in its potential impurity. Most viewers find bloodied work icky and off-putting—which is ironic given that, like all bodily fluids, we all carry them within. The grossness around blood is connected to the grossness we've been programmed to feel about our own bodies it's a side effect of alienation. Art that’s splattered with blood shocks us back into our corporeality.

For artists, blood presents a host of challenges and liabilities. It is, for example, illegal to transport blood and other biohazard substances using government bureaucracies. Plus, given that its organic matter, blood doesn’t conserve easily. The artist’s historical attraction to blood, then, isn’t one of convenience, but rather, one of risk-taking. Post-AIDS, blood-dripped art is often deemed political. This is especially true for women, who’ve unsurprisingly recycled the biological waste of their monthly cycles into material for art about their condition. As a nod to the bloodied delights of Halloween, here's eight artworks made with the horror and power of gore.

Andres Serrano, Blood and Semen V

ANDRES SERRANO, BLOOD AND SEMEN V, 1990

Best known for his controversial series of pissing Christ portraits, Andres Serrano’s work muddles with the sacrilegious. Bodily fluids drench his images, often at the cost of public incitement over his use of religious iconography. But other works, like this one included in the series Blood and Semen, remove the fluids from any corporeal or religious context, allowing the blood to stain in hauntingly abstract compositions. Although the meaning of the image is left up to interpretation, Serrano did play with blood when the threat of AIDS was filling public consciousness, giving the piece a certain threatening air.

Franko B - I’m Not Your Babe

FRANKO B, I’M NOT YOUR BABE, 1995

Franko B’s use of ritualistic blood letting bleeds into the disturbed, making use of the theatrical, propping himself as a "mute body-object" that is, drop by drop, disintegrated on stage. Although blood is often marked with dirtiness, for Franko, his performative bleeding is closer to the ancient medical practices of cleansing the body through the draining of blood. As always, blood carries the disease, but here, cleansing can come from its shedding.

Ana Mendieta – Body Tracks

ANA MENDIETA, BODY TRACKS, 1982

Ana Mendieta performed Body Tracks in 1982 New York City — all the press release warned was that "white cloth and animal blood" would be used. In the performance, Mendieta thoroughly dipped her hands into the mixture of animal blood and tempera and dragged her hand across three sheets of paper affixed to the wall. At first she made handprints, and then pressed her body down the paper, leaving a corporeal trace — literally tracks of her body — across the work. The use of blood only underlined the physicality of the work. Our blood always leaves a trace.

Hermann Nitsch

HERMANN NITSCH, BLOOD PICTURE, 1962

Hermann Nitsch is a multimedia artist and performer associated with the Viennese Actionists — a collective known for its brutal and bloody performances that included crucifying animal carcasses and ripping them apart. Blood Picture is one of the first works Nitsch made with blood. He soaked the canvas in it, and later splashed on more, leaving a dried painting that resembled used medical gauze. It's unclear whether the blood is his own.

Tracey Emin’s "My Bed"

TRACEY EMIN, MY BED, 1999

The bad girl of the Young British Artists made one of her biggest splashes when she submitted this sculpture into the 1999 Turner Prize competition. The work is often lauded for its honesty. Emin displayed an unpolished peep into her bedroom — blood-stained underwear and all. It is an unconventional form of self-portraiture, giving the viewer a glimpse into Emin’s chaos. Here, Emin uses blood to raise the stakes of the real and blood becomes a voucher for artistic daringness and authenticity.

Kiki Smith, "Blood Pool"

KIKI SMITH, BLOOD POOL, 1992

Despite not actually using any blood to make this piece, Kiki Smith's fetal-like sculpture connotes all of the texture and color of fresh flesh. With the title, Blood Pool, you can almost imagine the cuddled child swaddling in a pool of its own blood. The back of the wax sculpture features an exposed spine, adding to the fragility and spookiness of the piece. This sentiment is especially salient given that it was made in the wake of the AIDS crisis, where blood represented both life and death.

Gina Pane, Action Psyche

GINA PANE, ACTION PSYCHE, 1974

Gina Pane was fascinated with self-mortification. Her art is excruciating, both for the viewer and for the artist, whose performances comprise of her cutting herself across her body. This self-enacted violence undercuts the stereotype of feminine passivity by countering it with extreme aggression. Pane plays with masochism, letting her blood be witness to our culture’s sedated relationship to witnessing everyday violence.

Christen Clifford, I Want Your Blood

CHRISTEN CLIFFORD, I WANT YOUR BLOOD, 2013

Christen Clifford leads a new wave of feminist performance art steeped in the politics of menstruation. V I Want Your Blood, a performance in three parts, Clifford has for the past year collected several women’s menstrual blood, addressing and undermining the stigma attached to our periods. The collected samples of blood will be bottled together in glass containers, poured into little perfume vials, and, as Clifford did in a recent performance, used as paint to dip willing young men as paint brushes a-la Yves Klein. Breaking with past uses of blood, that reveres its risk and dirtiness, Clifford hopes for a celebration and reclamation of our own menstruation.

Portia Munson, Menstrual Print With Text

PORTIA MUNSON, MENSTRUAL PRINT WITH TEXT, 1993

Portia Munson’s practice hones in on her avarice for amassing. She’s best known for collecting hundreds of colour-coded objects, creating sculptures that accumulate hues. For this projec, she also collected her menstrual blood. Starting in the late 1980s, Munson made menstrual prints every month for about 8 years. She made these prints by pressing sheets of paper against my body while the blood was flowing. For exhibitions, Munson would display each month's prints in a grid on the wall to resemble a calendar. For this work, Munson inscribed a text that names both personal and historical narratives about menstruation and menstrual rites. The personal elements largely focused on dreams that I had that related to menstruation. Each print reads like a Rorschach, resembling creatures both touching and spooky, like an angel, or a bird, or a bat.


Art History of The Ahwahnee in Yosemite

In addition to being situated in one of the most picturesque landscapes on earth and designated as a National Historic Landmark, The Ahwahnee also boasts an amazing art collection that complements the architecture of the hotel. Did you know that The Ahwahnee displays one of the greatest Persian rug collections in the world? Though the design motifs found throughout the hotel are inspired by Native American patterns, the geometric patterns found in kilims, soumaks, kalamkars and other Middle Eastern rugs blend in seamlessly. The hotel’s original decorators – Dr. Phyllis Ackerman and Dr. Arthur Upham Pope – were experts in Persian arts and selected a variety of Persian rugs for the hotel’s public spaces since there wasn’t enough time before the grand opening to have Navajo rugs created. The Ahwahnee required fifty-nine rugs in total at opening and they were purchased in New York in 1927, ranging in price from 48.75 to $93.75 for a total of $5659. Today, many of the original rugs are displayed in the hotel’s public spaces mounted on the walls. Some are fully framed and the remnants of others are framed that proved too fragile over time.

Persian rug from the hotel’s original decor on display in the Mural Room.

The geometric patterns found in the rugs also inspired six art deco mosaic floor designs created by Henry Temple Howard with a special patent-pending process that combined linoleum, cork, clay, sawdust and linseed oil. Referred to as “rubber tile”, the mosaic designs were based on basket patterns from the Yurok, Hupa and Pomo tribes of California. Baskets and basket patterns are prominently displayed throughout the hotel to this day. U.C. Berkeley graduate Jeannette Dyer Spencer created the striking basket mural above the fireplace in the elevator lobby and the equally colorful stencil patterns found on the walls and ceilings throughout the hotel. Spencer made such a great impression with her work that she was hired permanently as the hotel’s interior decorator after the opening of the hotel on July 14, 1927. The baskets currently on display in the Great Lounge represent the basket artistry of California tribes such as Miwok, Pomo, Mono, Hupa and Yokuts, and another Native American tribe is also represented by the Pima of Arizona.

Floor mosaic at The Ahwahnee.

Basket mural by Jeannette Dyer Spencer.

Native American baskets on display in the Great Lounge at The Ahwahnee.

Though not placed in the hotel as part of the original decor, the watercolor paintings of Gunnar Widforss now line the hallway from the registration lobby to the Dining Room and Great Lounge. A Swedish artist who preferred painting landscapes such as the Grand Canyon was already famous by the time he arrived in Yosemite. Widforss was contracted by the Yosemite Park and Curry Company to create paintings of Yosemite suitable for the grand scale of The Ahwahnee architecture and the landscape that surrounds it.

Vernal Fall by Gunnar Widforss.

The Mural Room, once known as the Writing Room, features a toile pente (painted linen) mural on the wall created by Robert Boardman Howard for the hotel’s opening in 1927. The fifteenth century style of the mural features the native flora and fauna of Yosemite National Park in a pattern of flowering plants with animals large and small, serving not only as historic decor, but also as a nature guide to Yosemite. The Mural Room also features a unique corner fireplace with a hammered-copper hood and the only oak floor in the hotel’s public spaces.

Detail of the mural by Robert Boardman Howard on the wall of the Mural Room.

Though all of the decor delights park visitors in the public areas of the hotel, the most striking decorative element is the custom 5 x 6 foot stained glass panels that cap the ten floor-to-ceiling windows of the Great Lounge. Also designed by Jeannette Dyer Spencer, the stained glass panels were a last minute addition to hotel architect Gilbert Stanley Underwood’s original design. Though Spencer went on to contribute to the Ahwahnee decor in many areas, she was initially selected by Ackerman and Pope specifically for her background in stained glass design. Her selection and design experience provided The Ahwahnee with one of its most enduring artistic elements.


Byproducts/Waste

Of greatest concern are the chemicals used in retting. These chemicals must be neutralized before being released into water supplies. The stalks, leaves, seed pods, etc. are natural organic materials and are not hazardous unless impregnated with much of the chemicals left behind in the retting process. The only other concern with the processing of linen is the smell—it is said that hand-retted linen produces quite a stench and is most unpleasant to experience.


The Original Organic Paint

Versatile and made from casein, a dairy protein, milk paint has a long history of use on furniture, walls, even exterior cladding. When mixed with natural earth pigments, milk paint has a unique, flat finish with subtle variations in shading that suggest the patina of age.

Milk paints are most familiar in the colors of the earth, particularly oxide-containing clays, but the palette isn&rsquot limited to these tones. Since the paint comes in dry powder form, the painter has complete control over the outcome, including the creation of custom tones, tints or shades, and opacity. For example, simply varying the amount of water added to the mix can result in effects from translucence to a soft color wash, or to an opaque solid color.

Before pre-mixed, store-bought paints were common, colors were mixed by hand. Here a muller is used to grind dry pigments into the binder (e.g., oil, casein).

Milk paints are especially prized because they don&rsquot fade over time. Because the paint bonds to porous surfaces like wood, it won&rsquot chip or peel, either. It does, however, stain easily. Most companies recommend that it be sealed in high-traffic areas, and offer complementary lines of sealants.

In the past, homeowners added linseed oil or tar derivatives to strengthen milk paint&rsquos durability for outdoor use. Today, at least one milk paint company, Olde Century Colors, offers an acrylic latex milk paint. The colors and appearance are typical of the past, but the paint has all the durability of modern formulations.


To recreate Scandi style

Therefore, to recreate Scandi style for your home, remember the mantra of light, white, texture, natural finishes and simplicity and you can start to get a feel of how to successfully incorporate this look.

Do you love Scandi style? Let me know how you have used this in your decorating schemes – I would love to hear from you in the comments section below.

You should always start any decorating project with a mood board. Find out how to put one together with my FREE e-book which can be downloaded here from my FREE Resource Library.

If you still need assistance, I offer an e-consultation service to help you with your decorating project, renovation or new build. From answering one key question that is troubling you to putting together a full colour scheme, I have a package to suit you. Or I can tailor something especially for you. Find out more here.


Nephthys on Painted Linen - History

Wool is an animal fiber produced from spinning the hair of sheep. As a protein-based fiber, wool that is burned exudes the smell of burning hair. Wool flags generally feel coarse and the weave of wool fabric is generally looser than cotton or linen, and certainly looser than silk. Wool is chosen for flags because of its excellent ability to withstand water. Since it is a product of natural animal hair, it doesn't rot as readily as vegetable fibers like cotton or linen. Wool over 200 years old can still be vibrant and supple. Moths do tend to feed on wool, and many holes in wool flags are due to mothing, especially with flags that are stored for years in attics, barns, garages and basements.

When examined very closely, the earliest wool flags, which date to the 18th and early 19th century, were made of wool bunting that is very loosely and irregularly woven. This pre-industrial era wool is distinct and a good indicator of whether or not a flag with a low star count is in fact a possible authentic period example rather than a later-period flag. Shown here are close up images of wool bunting from flags of various eras, from the early 19th century through the 20th century. Note how in the earliest flag, the weave is very irregular, whereas in the wool bunting produced by machine in the mid- to late 19th century, and into the 20th century, the weave becomes very consistent and regular. (For more information see Wool, Wikipedia)

Cotton is a vegetable fiber produced from the boll that grows around the seeds within the seed pod of cotton plants. The fiber is spun into cotton yarn or cotton thread, and woven to produce cotton cloth. There are very early examples of cotton American flags, including those that predate the Civil War. Cotton was widely available as a household fabric, and was especially more prevalent for home use than animal materials such as wool bunting or silk. For many homemade American flags, cotton was the fabric of choice. When wet, cotton is heavier than wool and tends to become brittle and deteriorate. Cotton stored in hot or moist climates can also experience dry rotting. On most wool flags, cotton is typically the fabric of choice for sewn stars, owing to cotton's brighter coloration and tighter weave. (For more information, see Cotton, Wikipedia)

Linen is a vegetable fiber made from the fiber of the flax plant. Linen textiles are some of the oldest in the world. Homespun linen is a staple fabric. Though much less common than cotton today, linen fabric produced in early America was valued for its durability (linen is 2 to 3 times stronger than cotton) and, as an excellent conductor of heat, its coolness in warm weather. (For more information see Linen, Wikipedia.)

One of the best case studies for the use of linen in an early American flag is the 19 Star flag in this collection, as described below. The original 19 stars of the flag are made of identical homespun linen as the stripes of the flag. The two sets of added stars, which brought the total number of stars to 25, are clearly sewn by a different hand, but more importantly, are of a less tight, lower quality linen weave. This is solid evidence that when originally produced, the flag consisted of 19 stars, which were later updated. Note also how the linen, unlike cotton, has an almost pearl-like appearance under magnification.


Close up of an original star and its adjacent white stripe. Note the identical weave of the linen fabric. Also note the loose, irregular wool bunting, consistent with early 19th century wool fabric.

Silk is a natural protein fiber obtained most commonly from the cocoon of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. One of the most luxurious and expensive of all fabrics, the use of silk in American flags is typically reserved for the finest quality flags, most often for military or official use. Several qualities of silk make it an exceptionally good fabric for use in flags. The material is light-weight, exceptionally strong, tightly woven and weathers well. Its shimmering appearance is beautiful and impressive. For military standards, silk allows for large flags that are light and which dry quickly. The fineness of the material allows for the application of painted decorations, as is often seen in the painted stars and decorative cantons of flags produced for wartime use, especially those of the American Civil War.

One unfortunate problem with antique silk flags is that large numbers of them, including many Civil War era battle standards, were made of "weighted silk". Sold for centuries by length, merchants shifted from selling silk by length to selling it by weight, beginning in the early 19th century (circa 1820-1830). In order to earn more money for their silk, merchants frequently soaked the silk in water laden with mineral salts. Once dried, the mineral salts remained in the silk fibers and added weight to the silk, thus bringing the merchant more money. Unfortunately, these mineral salts proved to be caustic and caused severe breakdown in the silk fibers over time. Many flags made of weighted silk are very brittle, often deteriorating under their own weight. Yet flags made of unweighted silk, some of which are decades older than later weighted silk flags, remain in a remarkable state of preservation.

Beyond the basic fabrics of wool, cotton, silk and linen most commonly used on antique flags, flags exist that are sometimes made of blended fabric such as wool-silk blends. Although certain weaves, such as bunting weaves for wool, are most common, homemade flags that are made from materials at hand sometimes use fabric intended for other purposes such as blankets, clothing, drapery or upholstery. These variations add charm and uniqueness to the flags. Flags with fabrics in printed patterns such as calico or stripes are also unusual and rarely encountered, thus adding to their appeal with collectors.


Little Lamb: A babe in white linen on white stone

Editor's note: This article by Jenedy Paige originally appeared on her blog, JenedyPaige.com. It has been shared here with the author's permission.

Last year, I began to feel that I should attempt a Nativity painting. This of course was a very daunting idea, but I figured the best place to start was with research. I began with Luke 2:7,

“And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger because there was no room for them in the inn.”

I also came upon an article of archeologist, Jeffrey R. Chadwick, and found it eye opening and inspiring. Jeffrey R. Chadwick has worked in Israel as a researcher and field archaeologist for over thirty years, specializing in the backgrounds of biblical narratives. He suggested that the manger would have most likely been carved out of white limestone, one of the most abundant natural resources in the Israelite region, and showed pictures of many similar mangers they have uncovered on archaeological digs. And while we like to think of the baby, “asleep on the hay”, he also states that this was also unlikely, as grass was available on the hills surrounding Judea year round. They really would have had no need to store hay, and the mangers were most likely used for water.

I also learned that while we often think of “swaddling bands” as scraps of fabric, showing the poverty of Mary and Joseph, they were actually a big part of Israelite culture. When a young woman was betrothed she immediately began embroidering swaddling bands, which were 5- to 6-inch-wide strips of linen that would be embroidered with symbols of the ancestry of the bride and groom. Thus the bands symbolized the coming together of the two families as one. They also symbolized the integrity of the woman, as she strove to make both sides of the embroidery match exactly, symbolizing to her soon to be husband that she was as good on the inside as she was on the outside. These bands were then wrapped around the hands of the couple at the wedding ceremony. So the bands the Savior was swaddled in may have included the lion of Judah and the stem of Jesse.

As I wrapped my head around these rather mind altering ideas, I realized that many of the concepts that we have of the Savior’s birth revolve around paintings of European artists from centuries ago. I’m sure they painted according to the best of their abilities and knowledge, but I also wondered why more modern painters had yet to illustrate these concepts. I felt up to the task and began sketching right away. I picked up limestone from a stone yard, I bought linen from the fabric store, and just in time one of my good friends had a baby boy, and oddly enough, his name was Luke. I put all these components together and created this painting.

As I’ve sketched and worked, my heart has been so full as I’ve uncovered this image. For when you take away the Hollywood drama, the traditions of centuries, and the wood and the hay, all you’re really left with is a babe in white linen on white stone. And my mind immediately went to the purpose of the Savior’s life: He was born to die. He came as the sacrificial lamb for all mankind so how fitting that He would begin his life on a stone altar of sorts, and be wrapped in white linen, like he would after His death. And of course He would be placed in a trough for water, for He would be Living Water, and would bring life to all. I also found myself weeping for the Father, and how it must have felt to see His Son begin life foreshadowing His death. My heart was so full of gratitude that He would send His Only Begotten to be the Savior for us all. That He would send His Son, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, to die so that we all might live. What good news, what comfort and joy, what a gift was given to us all. O come, let us adore Him.

Jenedy Paige decided to be an artist as a senior in High School, and learned to paint during her time at BYU-Idaho, where she graduated with a BFA in 2006. It was art's ability to communicate a message that persuaded her to pursue a career in it, and it's the thing that keeps driving her back to her easel. Her greatest masterpieces are her three sons and daughter.


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