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Zgodovina Voladorja I - Zgodovina

Zgodovina Voladorja I - Zgodovina


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Volador I.

(Sch: t. 114; 1. 110'0 "; b. 23'5"; dr. 12'3 "; dph. 11'6"; s. 7 k.)

Prvo Volador-lesasto škuno s pomožnim motorjem-je zasnoval William Gardiner, leta 1926 pa jo je v Wilmingtonu v Kaliforniji zgradil William Muller. Plovilo je za mornarico pridobil direktor pristanišča San Pedro v Kaliforniji 2. februarja 1942. od WL Valentine. Volador je bil na ta dan dostavljen v bazo oddelkov San Pedro, zato je bil Volador razvrščen kot drugo pomožno, nerazvrščeno IX -59, 19. februarja 19i2 pa je bil "v službi".

Julija istega leta je bila začasno premeščena na dom iz San Pedra, Volador je leta 1943 deloval lokalno pod okriljem 11. pomorskega okrožja leta 1943 v obalno stražo za naloge operativnega usposabljanja za osebje obalne straže.

17. avgusta 1943 je bil Volador izročen vojni ladijski upravi, ki je škuno prenesla na vojno ministrstvo za delovanje vojske. Volador (IX-59) je bil 3. septembra 1943 izbrisan s seznama mornarice.


Zgodovina Voladorja I - Zgodovina

Dorothy Schwieder, profesorica zgodovine na državni univerzi Iowa

Marquette in Joliet najdeta Iowa bujno in zeleno

Poleti 1673 sta francoska raziskovalca Louis Joliet in oče Jacques Marquette potovala po reki Mississippi mimo dežele, ki naj bi postala država Iowa. Raziskovalca sta skupaj s petimi člani posadke stopila na kopno v bližini mesta, kjer se je reka Iowa izlila v Mississippi. Menijo, da je potovanje leta 1673 prvič obiskalo belgijsko regijo Iowa. Po raziskovanju okolice so Francozi v svojih revijah zapisali, da je Iowa videti bujna, zelena in rodovitna. Naslednjih 300 let se bo na tisoče belih naseljencev strinjalo s temi zgodnjimi obiskovalci: Iowa je bila res bujna in zelena, poleg tega je bila njena zemlja zelo produktivna. Pravzaprav je velik del zgodovine države Hawkeye neločljivo prepleten s kmetijsko produktivnostjo. Iowa danes velja za eno vodilnih kmetijskih držav v državi, kar je napovedovalo opazovanje prvih francoskih raziskovalcev.

Pred letom 1673 pa je bila regija dolgo časa dom številnih Indijancev. V različnih časih je tu prebivalo približno 17 različnih indijanskih plemen, vključno z Iowayom, Saukom, Mesquakijem, Siouxom, Potawatomijem, Otom in Missourijem. Indijanci Potawatomi, Oto in Missouri so svojo zemljo prodali zvezni vladi do leta 1830, medtem ko sta Sauk in Mesquaki ostala v regiji Iowa do leta 1845. Santee Band iz Siouxa je bil zadnji, ki se je leta 1851 pogajal o pogodbi z zvezno vlado. .

Sauk in Mesquaki sta bila največja in najmočnejša plemena v zgornji dolini Mississippija. Pred tem so se iz regije Michigan preselili v Wisconsin, do leta 1730 pa so se preselili v zahodni Illinois. Tam so ustanovili svoje vasi ob rekah Rock in Mississippi. V svojih glavnih vaseh so živeli le nekaj mesecev vsako leto. Včasih so potovali po zahodnem Illinoisu in vzhodni Iowi, lovili, lovili ribe in zbirali hrano in material, s katerim so izdelovali domače izdelke. Vsako pomlad sta oba plemena odpotovala proti severu v Minnesoto, kjer sta pokukala javorja in naredila sirup.

Leta 1829 je zvezna vlada oba plemena obvestila, da morata zapustiti vasi v zahodnem Illinoisu in se preseliti čez reko Mississippi v regijo Iowa. Zvezna vlada je zahtevala lastništvo dežele Illinois zaradi pogodbe iz leta 1804. Premik je bil narejen, vendar ne brez nasilja. Poglavar Črni jastreb, zelo cenjen vodja Sauka, je protestiral proti tej potezi in se leta 1832 vrnil, da bi ponovno zasedel vas Saukenauk v Illinoisu. Naslednje tri mesece je milica iz Illinoisa zasledovala Black Hawka in njegovo skupino s približno 400 Indijanci proti severu vzdolž vzhodne strani reke Mississippi. Indijanci so se predali pri reki Bad Axe v Wisconsinu, njihovo število pa se je zmanjšalo na približno 200. To srečanje je znano kot vojna Black Hawk. Kot kazen za njihov odpor je zvezna vlada zahtevala, da Sauk in Mesquaki odstopita nekaj svoje zemlje v vzhodni Iowi. Ta dežela, znana kot nakup Black Hawka, je predstavljala pas 50 milj širok, ki leži ob reki Mississippi, ki se razteza od meje Missourija do približno okrožij Fayette in Clayton v severovzhodni Iowa.

Danes je v Iowi še vedno ena indijska skupina, Mesquaki, ki prebiva v naselju Mesquaki v okrožju Tama. Potem ko je bila večina članov Sauka in Mesquakija odstranjenih iz države, so se nekateri plemenski člani Mesquaki, skupaj z nekaj Sauki, vrnili na lov in ribolov v vzhodni Iowi. Indijanci so se nato obrnili na guvernerja Jamesa Grimesa z zahtevo, da jim dovolijo odkup nekaterih svojih prvotnih zemljišč. Za prvi nakup zemljišča so zbrali 735 dolarjev in na koncu so odkupili približno 3200 hektarjev.

Prvi beli naseljenci v Iowi

Prvo uradno belo naselje v Iowi se je začelo junija 1833, pri nakupu Black Hawka. Večina prvih belih naseljencev v Iowi je prišla iz Ohia, Pennsylvanije, New Yorka, Indiane, Kentuckyja in Virginije. Velika večina novincev je prišla v družinske enote. Večina družin je prebivala v vsaj eni dodatni državi od trenutka, ko so zapustile rojstno državo, in do prihoda v Iowo. Včasih so se družine tri ali štirikrat preselile, preden so prišle v Iowo. Hkrati pa niso ostali vsi naseljenci, mnogi so se kmalu preselili v Dakote ali druga območja na velikih ravnicah.

Prvi beli naseljenci v Iowi so kmalu odkrili okolje, drugačno od tistega, ki so ga poznali na vzhodu. Večina severovzhodnih in jugovzhodnih držav je bila močno lesenih naseljencev, ki so imeli material za gradnjo domov, gospodarskih poslopij in ograj. Poleg tega je les zagotovil dovolj goriva. Ko so mimo skrajnega vzhodnega dela Iowe, so naseljenci hitro odkrili, da je država predvsem prerija ali območje z visoko travo. Drevesa so močno rasla na skrajnem vzhodnem in jugovzhodnem delu ter ob rekah in potokih, drugod pa je bil les omejen.

V večini delov vzhodne in osrednje Iowe so naseljenci našli dovolj lesa za gradnjo brunaric, vendar je bilo treba najti nadomestne materiale za gorivo in ograje. Za gorivo so se obrnili na posušeno prerijsko seno, koruzne storže in posušen iztrebke živali. V južni Iowi so prvi naseljenci odkrili premog ob rekah in potokih. Ljudje, ki so se preselili v severozahodno Iowo, območje, ki je prav tako brez dreves, so zgradili hiše iz busenov. Nekateri stanovalci v zgodnjih sodnih hišah so žareče pisali o svojih novih stanovanjih in vztrajali, da gradnja & quotoddies & quot; ni le poceni za gradnjo, ampak je bila pozimi topla, poleti pa hladna. Naseljenci so neskončno eksperimentirali z nadomestnimi ograjnimi materiali. Nekateri prebivalci so gradili kamnite ograje, nekateri gradili umazane grebene, drugi kopali jarke. Najuspešnejši material za ograje je bila osažna oranžna živa meja do leta 1870, ko je izum bodeče žice kmetom zagotovil zadovoljiv ograjen material.

Zgodnji naseljenci so prepoznali druge pomanjkljivosti življenja v preriji. Mnogi so se pritoževali, da je prerija videti mračna in opustošena. Ena ženska, ki je prišla iz države New York, je svojemu možu povedala, da misli, da bo umrla brez dreves. Izseljenci iz Evrope, zlasti skandinavskih držav, so se odzvali podobno. Ti prišleki so odkrili tudi, da imajo prerije še eno pomanjkljivost - lahko smrtno nevarno. Prerijski požari so bili pogosti v deželi z visoko travo, pogosto se pojavljajo vsako leto. Dnevniki pionirskih družin dramatično opisujejo odzive zgodnjih Iovcev na prerijske požare, pogosto mešanico strahu in strahospoštovanja. Ko se je približal prerijski požar, so bili poklicani vsi družinski člani, da bi preprečili plamen. Eno devetnajstega stoletja je Iowan zapisal, da so jeseni ljudje spali z odprtim očesom, dokler ni zapadel prvi sneg, kar kaže, da je grožnja požara minila.

Pionirske družine so se v svojih prvih letih v Iowi soočile z dodatnimi stiskami. Gradnja domačije je bila sama po sebi težko delo. Družine niso morale graditi samo svojih domov, ampak so pogosto morale graditi tudi uporabljeno pohištvo. Prišleki so bili pogosto osamljeni za prijatelje in sorodnike. Pionirji so pogosto zboleli za nalezljivimi boleznimi, kot je škrlatinka. Vročina in mrzlica, ki sta jo sestavljali izmenično vročina in mrzlica, sta bili stalna pritožba. Kasnejše generacije bi se naučile, da sta vročina in mrzlica oblika malarije, a pionirji so menili, da je to posledica plina, ki se sprošča iz na novo obrnjene trate. Poleg tega so imeli pionirji malo načinov za lajšanje celo običajnega prehlada ali zobobola.

Zgodnje življenje v preriji Iowa je bilo včasih oteženo zaradi smrti družinskih članov. Nekatere pionirke so pisale o bolečini v srcu zaradi smrti otroka. Ena ženska, Kitturah Belknap, je zaradi pljučne mrzlice izgubila enega otroka. Ko je umrl drugi otrok, je v svoj dnevnik zaupala:

& quot; Moral sem prestati še eno sezono žalosti. Smrt je spet prišla v naš dom. Tokrat je za svojo žrtev zahteval našega dragega malega Janeza. Težko sem se mu odrekel, vendar je možganska kap v štirih kratkih dneh končala svoje delo. Spet sva ostala z enim dojenčkom in čutim, da moje zdravje popušča. & Quot

Toda za pionirje, ki so ostali na zemlji 1, in večina jih je, so bile nagrade znatne. Ti zgodnji naseljenci so kmalu odkrili, da je prerijsko zemljišče, čeprav zahteva nekaj prilagoditev, eno najbogatejših dežel na svetu. Še več, do poznih 1860 -ih je bila večina države naseljena, osamljenost in osamljenost, povezana s pionirskim življenjem, pa sta hitro izginili.

Prevoz: Železniška vročina

Ko se je sredi 1800-ih v Iowo zlilo na tisoče naseljencev, so vsi imeli skupno skrb za razvoj ustreznega prevoza. Najzgodnejši naseljenci so svoje kmetijsko blago pošiljali po reki Mississippi v New Orleans, vendar so do leta 1850 Iowanci ujeli državno železniško mrzlico. Prva državna železnica je bila zgrajena v bližini Baltimora leta 1831, do leta 1860 pa je Chicago služil skoraj ducat linij. Iowanci so, tako kot drugi srednjezahodnjaki, nestrpno začeli graditi železnice v svoji državi.

V zgodnjih 1850 -ih so mestni uradniki v rečnih skupnostih Dubuque, Clinton, Davenport in Burlington začeli organizirati lokalna železniška podjetja. Mestni uradniki so vedeli, da bodo železnice, zgrajene zahodno od Chicaga, kmalu dosegle reko Mississippi nasproti štirih mest Iowa. Leta 1850 je prišlo do načrtovanja železnic, kar je sčasoma privedlo do razvoja osrednjega dela Illinoisa, Chicaga in severozahodnega sveta, ki je leta 1867 doseglo svet blefiranja. segajo po zahodni polovici države in skupaj s osrednjim Pacifikom zagotavljajo prvo nacionalno transkontinentalno železnico. Kmalu zatem je peta železnica, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul in Pacific, dokončala svojo progo po vsej državi.

Dokončanje petih železnic po Iowi je prineslo velike gospodarske spremembe. Pomembno je, da lahko Iowanci potujejo vsak mesec v letu. V zadnjem devetdesetem in začetku dvajsetega stoletja so imela celo majhna mesta v Iowi šest potniških vlakov na dan. Že pred tem so prevoz opravljali parniki in podvodni vozički, vendar sta bila oba močno odvisna od vremena, parni čolni pa po zamrznjenih rekah sploh niso mogli potovati. Železnice so kmetom v Iowi zagotavljale tudi celoletni prevoz. Ker je Chicago kot železniško središče prevladoval, bi lahko koruzo, pšenico, govedino in svinjino, ki so jo vzgojili kmetje Iowe, prepeljali skozi Chicago, po vsej državi do vzhodnih pristanišč in od tam, kjer koli po svetu.

Železnice so prinesle tudi velike spremembe v industrijskem sektorju Iowe. Pred letom 1870 je Iowa vsebovala nekaj proizvodnih podjetij v vzhodnem delu države, zlasti vsa, ki jih je omogočal celoletni železniški promet. Mnoge nove panoge so bile povezane s kmetijstvom. V Cedar Rapidu sta John in Robert Stuart skupaj s svojim bratrancem Georgeom Douglasom ustanovila obrat za predelavo ovsa. Sčasoma je to podjetje dobilo ime Quaker Oats. Tovarne za pakiranje mesa so se v 1870 -ih pojavile tudi v različnih delih zvezne države: Sinclair Mecking Packing se je odprl v Cedar Rapids, John Morrell in Company pa so ustanovili poslovanje v Ottumwi.

Z naraščanjem prebivalstva in gospodarstva Iowe sta se začela oblikovati tudi izobraževanje in verske ustanove. Američani so že dolgo menili, da je izobraževanje pomembno, in Iowanci niso odstopili od tega prepričanja. Zgodaj v kateri koli soseski so prebivalci začeli organizirati šole. Prvi korak je bil ustanovitev mestnih osnovnih šol, finančno podprtih s prodajo ali najemom oddelka 16 v vsakem od številnih mestnih mest v državi. Prva gimnazija je bila ustanovljena v petdesetih letih 20. stoletja, na splošno pa so srednje šole postale razširjene šele po letu 1900. Kmalu so se pojavile tudi zasebne in javne šole. Do leta 1900 so kongregacionalisti ustanovili Grinnell College. Katoličani in metodisti pa so bili najbolj vidni v zasebnem visokem šolstvu. Od leta 1900 so ustanovili po pet fakultet: Iowa Wesleyan, Simpson, Cornell, Morningside in University of Upper Iowa s strani Methodists in Marycrest, St. Ambrose, Briar Cliff, Loras in Clarke s strani katoličanov. Druge cerkvene šole, ki so bile do leta 1900 prisotne v Iowi, so bile Coe in Dubuque (prezbiterijanski) Wartburg in Luther (luteranski) centralni (baptist) in Drake (Kristusovi učenci).

Ustanovitev zasebnih šol je sovpadala z ustanovitvijo državnih izobraževalnih ustanov. Sredi devetnajstega stoletja so državni uradniki organizirali tri državne visokošolske ustanove, od katerih je vsaka imela drugačno poslanstvo. Univerza v Iowi, ustanovljena leta 1855, naj bi nudila klasično in strokovno izobraževanje mladim v Iowi Iowa State College of Science and Technology (zdaj Iowa State University), ustanovljena leta 1858, je ponujala kmetijsko in tehnično usposabljanje. Iowa State Teachers 'College (danes University of Northern Iowa), ustanovljena leta 1876, je namenjena usposabljanju učiteljev za državne državne šole.

Iowanci so tudi hitro organizirali cerkve. Od štiridesetih let prejšnjega stoletja je Metodistična cerkev poslala kolesarje na potovanje po celotnem naseljenem delu države. Vsak kolesar je običajno imel dvotedenski krog, v katerem je obiskal posamezne družine in pridige za lokalne metodistične občine. Ker so bile pridige kolesarjev ponavadi čustvene in preprosto izrečene, so se mejni ljudje Iowe z njimi zlahka identificirali. Metodisti so imeli veliko koristi od svojega "plavajočega ministrstva", ki je pritegnilo na stotine spreobrnjencev v zgodnjih letih Iowe. Ko se je pojavilo več naseljenih skupnosti, je Metodistična cerkev za te stacionarne pristojbine dodelila ministre.

Tudi katoličani so se kmalu po začetku naseljevanja belih naselili v Iowo. Dubuque je služil kot središče katolištva v Iowi, saj so katoliki ustanovili svojo prvo škofijo v tem mestu. Vodilna katoliška osebnost je bil Francoz škof Mathias Loras, ki je v Dubuque prišel v poznih 1830 -ih. Škof Loras je pomagal vzpostaviti katoliške cerkve na tem območju in si je močno prizadeval privabiti duhovnike in redovnice iz tujih držav. Pred državljansko vojno je bila večina katoliške duhovščine Iowe iz Francije, Irske in Nemčije. Po državljanski vojni je bilo vedno več te skupine domačih. Škof Loras je pomagal ustanoviti tudi dve katoliški izobraževalni ustanovi v Dubuqueu, Clarke College in Loras College.

Kongregacionalisti so bili tretja skupina, ki je imela v državi Iowa pomembno vlogo pred državljansko vojno. Prva skupina kongregacionalističnih ministrov je bila znana kot Iowa Band. To je bila skupina 11 ministrantov, ki so bili vsi usposobljeni v bogoslovnem semenišču Andover, ki so se strinjali, da bodo evangelij prenesli v obmejno območje. Skupina je prispela leta 1843 in vsak minister je izbral drugo mesto, v katerem bi ustanovil občino. Moto skupine Iowa Band je bil & quoteach cerkev vse fakultete. & Quot Po nekaj letih, ko je vsak minister delal samostojno, so ministri skupaj pomagali pri ustanovitvi Iowa College v Davenportu. Kasneje so cerkveni uradniki preselili fakulteto v Grinnell in se preimenovali v Grinnell College. Pisma in revija Williama Salterja, člana skupine Iowa Band, prikazujejo predanost in filozofijo te majhne skupine. Nekoč je Salter svoji zaročenki na vzhodu napisal naslednje:
& quotNamen cilj je pokazati, da bo Zahod takšen, kot ga naredijo drugi, in da bodo imeli tisti, ki delajo najbolj in delajo največ zanj. Molitev in bolečina bosta rešila Zahod in država je vredna tega. & quot 2

V devetnajstem stoletju so številne druge veroizpovedi ustanavljale cerkve v državi. Kvekerji so ustanovili hiše srečanj v skupnostih West Branch, Springdale in Salem. Prezbiterijani so bili dobro zastopani tudi v skupnostih Iowa. Baptisti so pogosto sledili praksi najema lokalnih kmetov za pridiganje v nedeljo zjutraj. In že v štiridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja so se v vzhodni Iowi začele pojavljati menonitske cerkve. Delo različnih veroizpovedi je pomenilo, da so v prvih treh desetletjih poravnave Iowanci hitro ustanovili svoje osnovne verske ustanove.

Do leta 1860 je Iowa dosegla državnost (28. december 1846), država pa je še naprej privabljala številne naseljence, tako domače kot tuje. Samo skrajni severozahodni del države je ostal obmejno območje. Toda po skoraj 30 letih mirnega razvoja so se Iowanci z izbruhom državljanske vojne leta 1861. močno spremenili. Moški v Iowi so se navdušeno odzvali pozivu prostovoljcev Unije in več kot 75.000 moških v Iowi je sodelovalo z odliko v kampanjah na vzhodu in jugu. Od tega je 13.001 umrlo v vojni, veliko zaradi bolezni in ne zaradi bojnih ran. Nekateri moški so umrli v zaporniških taboriščih Konfederacije, zlasti Andersonville v Gruziji. Skupno je bilo ranjenih 8 500 moških v Iowi.

Mnogi Iowanci so z odliko služili v vojski Unije. Verjetno najbolj znan je bil Grenville Dodge, ki je med vojno postal general. Dodge je opravljal dve pomembni funkciji: nadzoroval je obnovo številnih južnih železniških prog, da bi se vojakom Unije omogočil hitrejši premik po jugu, in vodil protiobveščevalno operacijo za sindikalno vojsko, pri čemer je na severu našel simpatizerje severnih držav. posreduje informacije o gibanju južnih čet in vojaških načrtih vojakom na severu.

Drugi Iowan, Cyrus Carpenter, je bil star 31 let, ko je leta 186 stopil v vojsko. Živel je v Ft. Dodge, Carpenter je namesto vpoklica zahteval provizijo od vojske. Dobil je čin stotnika in postavljen za intendanta. Tesar še nikoli ni bil v tej funkciji, vendar je s pomočjo vojaškega uslužbenca nadaljeval z opravljanjem svojih nalog. Večino časa je bil Carpenter odgovoren za prehrano 40.000 mož. Ne samo, da je bilo težko imeti dovolj hrane za moške, Carpenter je moral ves čas hraniti zaloge in osebje na poti. Tesarju se je to zdelo neizmerno frustrirajoče, vendar mu je večino časa hrana in druge potrebščine uspelo dati na pravo mesto ob pravem času.

Ženske iz Iowe so med vojno služile tudi svojemu narodu. Na stotine žensk je pletalo puloverje, šivalo uniforme, zvijalo povoje in zbiralo denar za vojaške potrebščine. Ženske so po vsej državi ustanovile vojaške družbe za pomoč. Annie Wittenmyer se je še posebej odlikovala s prostovoljnim delom. Med vojno je veliko časa zbirala denar in potrebovala zaloge za vojake Iowe. Nekoč je gospa Wittenmyer obiskala svojega brata v bolnišnici vojske Unije. Nasprotovala je hrani, ki je bila postrežena pacientom, in trdila, da se nihče ne more oporekati mastne slanine in hladne kave. Bolnišničnim oblastem je predlagala, naj vzpostavijo dietne kuhinje, da bodo bolniki dobili ustrezno prehrano. Sčasoma so v vojaških bolnišnicah ustanovili nekaj dietnih kuhinj. Gospa Wittenmyer je bila odgovorna tudi za ustanovitev več domov za vojaške sirote.

Doba državljanske vojne je v Iowo prinesla precejšnje spremembe in morda je bila ena najbolj vidnih sprememb na političnem področju. V 1840 -ih je večina Iovcev glasovala za demokracijo, čeprav je država vsebovala tudi nekaj vigov. Prva dva senatorja Iowe iz ZDA sta bila demokrata, tako kot večina državnih uradnikov. V petdesetih letih 20. stoletja pa je državna demokratična stranka razvila resne notranje težave, pa tudi neuspešno pri doseganju nacionalne demokratične stranke, da bi se odzvala na njihove potrebe. Iowans se je kmalu obrnil na novo nastalo republikansko stranko, politična kariera Jamesa Grimesa ponazarja to spremembo. Leta 1854 je Iowans na vozovnici Whig izvolil Grimesa za guvernerja. Dve leti kasneje je Iowans na republikanski listi volil Grimesa za guvernerja. Grimes bo kasneje služil kot republikanski senator Združenih držav iz Iowe. Republikanci so v 1850 -ih letih prevzeli državno politiko in hitro sprožili več sprememb. Premestili so glavno mesto države iz Iowa Cityja v Des Moines, ustanovili so Univerzo v Iowi in napisali novo državno ustavo. Od poznih 1850 -ih pa vse do dvajsetega stoletja so Iowanci ostali močno republikanski. Iowans je v Washington poslal številne zelo sposobne republikance, zlasti Williama Boyda Allisona iz Dubuqueja, Jonathana P. Dolliverja iz Ft. Dodge in Albert Baird Cummins iz Des Moines. Ti možje so z odliko služili svoji državi in ​​svojemu narodu.

Drugo politično vprašanje, s katerim se soočajo Iowanci v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, je bilo vprašanje volilne pravice žensk. Od leta 1860 dalje je Iowa vsebovala veliko žensk in nekaj moških, ki so ukrep odločno podpirali in so si neskončno prizadevali za njegovo sprejetje. V skladu s splošnim reformnim razpoloženjem v poznih šestdesetih in sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bilo to vprašanje resno obravnavano, ko sta oba doma generalne skupščine leta 1870 sprejela amandma o volilni pravici žensk. Dve leti kasneje pa je moral zakonodajalec ponovno razmisliti o spremembi. preden se je lahko predložilo splošnemu volivcu, je interes popustil, razvilo se je nasprotovanje in amandma je bil zavrnjen.

Naslednjih 47 let so ženske v Iowi neprestano delale, da bi zagotovile sprejetje amandmaja o volilni pravici žensk k ustavi Iowe. V tem času je bilo to vprašanje obravnavano na skoraj vseh sejah državnega zakonodajnega telesa, vendar je bila splošnemu volivcu ponujena sprememba (ki sta na dveh zaporednih sejah sprejela oba doma državnega zakonodajnega organa) le enkrat, na teh volitvah volivci so amandma premagali za približno 10.000 glasov.

Argumenti proti volilni pravici žensk so segali od obtožbe, da ženske glasovanje ne zanima, do obtožbe, da bi volilna pravica žensk povzročila propad družine in povzročila prestopništvo pri otrocih. Kar zadeva poraz državnega referenduma o glasovanju žensk leta 1916, je Carrie Chapman Catt, voditeljica volilne pravice žensk, rojena v Iowi, trdila, da bi morali alkoholni interesi v državi sprejeti odgovornost, saj so trdo delali, da bi premagali ukrep. Med dolgo kampanjo za zagotovitev glasovanja pa se ženske same niso vedno strinjale glede najboljšega pristopa k zmagi. Catt je sama vodila zadnji zmagoviti napad v letih 1918 in 1919 v Washingtonu s svojim & quotwinning načrtom. & Quot To je zahtevalo, da ženske delajo tako za državne (državne ustave) kot nacionalne (nacionalne ustave) spremembe. Nazadnje, leta 1920, potem ko sta oba doma Kongresa Združenih držav sprejela ukrep in ga je odobrilo ustrezno število držav, je volilna pravica žensk postala resničnost za Američanke povsod.

Iowa: Dom za priseljence
Medtem ko so Iowanci razpravljali o vprašanjih volilne pravice žensk v obdobju po državljanski vojni, je država sama privabila veliko več ljudi. Po državljanski vojni je prebivalstvo Iowe še naprej dramatično raslo, in sicer s 674.913 prebivalcev leta 1860 na 1.194.020 leta 1870. Poleg tega se je bistveno spremenila tudi etnična sestava prebivalstva Iowe. Pred državljansko vojno je Iowa privabila nekaj naseljencev, rojenih v tujini, vendar je število ostalo majhno. Po državljanski vojni se je število priseljencev povečalo. Leta 1869 je država spodbudila priseljevanje s tiskanjem 96-strani knjižice z naslovom Iowa: Dom imigrantov. Publikacija je podala fizične, družbene, izobraževalne in politične opise Iowe. Zakonodajalec je naročil, da se knjižica izda v angleščini, nemščini, nizozemščini, švedščini in danščini.

Iowanci niso bili sami v svojih prizadevanjih, da bi pritegnili več severnih in zahodnih Evropejcev. Po vsej državi so Američani te nove prišleke obravnavali kot "dobre zaloge" in jih navdušeno pozdravljali. Večina priseljencev iz teh držav je prišla v družinskih enotah. Največjo skupino so sestavljali Nemci, ki so se naselili v vseh okrožjih v državi. Velika večina so postali kmetje, mnogi pa tudi obrtniki in trgovci. Poleg tega so številni Nemci in Američani urejali časopise, poučevali v šolah in vodili bančne ustanove. V Iowi so Nemci pokazali največjo raznolikost poklicev, vere in geografske naselitve.

Družina Marx Goettsch iz Davenporta je dober primer nemških priseljencev. V času izseljenstva leta 1871 je bil Goettsch star 24 let, poročen in oče mladega sina. V dvoletnem mandatu v nemški vojski se je Goettsch naučil obutve čevljarstva. Goettsch in njegova družina sta se odločila, da se naselijo v Davenportu, med Nemci s področja Schleswig-Holstein. Goettschu je s trdim delom kot čevljar uspelo ne le kupiti stavbo za svoj dom in trgovino, ampak je kupil tudi pet dodatnih mestnih parcel. Kasneje je Goettsch dal graditi domove na parcelah, ki jih je dal v najem. Takrat je postal človek malega gospodarstva in najemodajalec.

V naslednjih 25 letih sta Goettsch in njegova žena Anna vzgajala šest otrok in uživala v precejšnji blaginji. Za Marxa in Anno se življenje v Ameriki, obkroženo s kolegi Nemci-Američani, ni bistveno razlikovalo od življenja v stari državi. Za njune otroke pa je bilo življenje precej drugačno. Življenje Goettschovih otrok - ali druge generacije - najbolje ponazarja družbene in gospodarske priložnosti, ki so na voljo priseljencem v Združenih državah. Če bi družina ostala v Nemčiji, bi verjetno vseh pet sinov sledilo očetovemu poklicu čevljarja. V Združenih državah je vseh pet študiralo na visokem šolstvu. Dva sinova sta doktorirala, dva sinova sta doktorirala, en sin pa je postal poklicni inženir. S tretjo generacijo je bilo odločilno dejstvo tudi izobraževanje. Od sedmih vnukov so vsi postali profesionalci. Poleg tega je bilo pet od sedmih žensk. Kot kažejo izkušnje Goettscha, je bilo priseljencev, ki so se naselili v Iowi v devetnajstem in dvajsetem stoletju, veliko priložnosti. Prišleki in njihovi otroci bi lahko vzeli zemljo, se lotili posla ali nadaljevali visokošolsko izobraževanje. Za večino priseljencev so ta območja ponudila boljše in uspešnejše življenje, kot so ga poznali njihovi starši v stari državi.

Iowa je pritegnila tudi številne druge ljudi iz Evrope, vključno s Švedi, Norvežani, Danci, Nizozemci in številnimi emigranti z britanskih otokov, kot prikazuje naslednja tabela. Po letu 1900 so se ljudje izseljevali tudi iz južne in vzhodne Evrope. V mnogih primerih so bile skupine priseljencev identificirane s posebnimi poklici. Skandinavci, vključno z Norvežani, ki so se naselili v okrožjih Winneshiek in Story, so se Švedi naselili v okrožju Boone in Danci, ki so se naselili v jugozahodni Iowi, so bili v veliki meri povezani s kmetijstvom. Mnogi Švedi so postali tudi rudarji premoga. Nizozemci so v Iowi naredili dve večji naselji, prvo v okrožju Marion, drugo pa v severozahodni Iowi.

Sorazmerno veliko več južnih in vzhodnih priseljencev, zlasti Italijanov in Hrvatov, je šlo v rudarstvo kot zahodni in severni Evropejci. Ko so prišle v Iowo z malo denarja in malo spretnosti, so te skupine težile k delu, ki je zahtevalo malo ali nič usposabljanja in jim omogočilo takojšnjo zaposlitev. V Iowi na prelomu stoletja je bilo to delo pridobivanje premoga.


Hvala vam!

V mestih je zaradi vse večje urbanizacije sistem nočne straže postal popolnoma neuporaben, saj so postale skupnosti prevelike. Prva javno financirana organizirana policija z rednimi policisti je bila ustanovljena v Bostonu leta 1838. Boston je bil veliko pomorsko trgovsko središče, podjetja pa so najemala ljudi za zaščito svojega premoženja in transport blaga iz pristanišča. Boston v druga mesta, pravi Potter. Ti trgovci so iznašli način, kako prihraniti denar, tako da so na stroške vzdrževanja policije prešli na državljane in trdili, da gre za kolektivno dobro. ”

Na jugu pa gospodarstvo, ki je vodilo nastanek policijskih sil, ni bilo osredotočeno na zaščito ladijskih interesov, ampak na ohranitev suženjskega sistema. Nekatere od primarnih policijskih institucij, ki so bile tam, so bile patrulje sužnjev, ki so zadolžene za preganjanje beguncev in preprečevanje uborov sužnjev, Potter pravi, da je bila prva uradna patrulja za sužnje ustanovljena v kolonijah v Karolini leta 1704. Med državljansko vojno je vojska postala primarna oblika kazenskega pregona na jugu, toda med obnovo so številni lokalni šerifi delovali na način, podoben prejšnjim patruljam sužnjev, pri čemer so uveljavljali segregacijo in odvzem pravice do osvoboditve sužnjev.

Na splošno je bilo v 19. stoletju in pozneje opredelitev javnega reda & mdash, ki jo je policist zadolžil za vzdrževanje & mdash, odvisna od tega, koga so vprašali.

Na primer, poslovneži v poznem 19. stoletju so imeli tako veze s politiki kot podobo ljudi, ki bodo najverjetneje stavkali in motili njihovo delovno silo. Zato ni naključje, da so do konca osemdesetih let vsa velika ameriška mesta imela policijo. Strah pred sindikalnimi organizatorji in velikimi valovi katoliških, irskih, italijanskih, nemških in vzhodnoevropskih priseljencev, ki so bili videti in ravnali drugače kot ljudje, ki so prej prevladovali v mestih, so spodbudili k ohranjanju reda in miru, oz. vsaj njegovo različico, ki jo spodbujajo prevladujoči interesi. Na primer, ljudje, ki so pili v gostilnah in ne doma, so drugi videli kot “nevarne ” ljudi, morda pa so opozorili na druge dejavnike, na primer, kako življenje v manjšem domu naredi pitje v gostilni privlačnejše. (Ironija te logike, poudarja Potter, je, da so poslovneži, ki so ohranili to prepričanje, pogosto tisti, ki so imeli koristi od komercialne prodaje alkohola na javnih mestih.)

At the same time, the late 19th century was the era of political machines, so police captains and sergeants for each precinct were often picked by the local political party ward leader, who often owned taverns or ran street gangs that intimidated voters. They then were able to use police to harass opponents of that particular political party, or provide payoffs for officers to turn a blind eye to allow illegal drinking, gambling and prostitution.

This situation was exacerbated during Prohibition, leading President Hoover to appoint the Wickersham Commission in 1929 to investigate the ineffectiveness of law enforcement nationwide. To make police independent from political party ward leaders, the map of police precincts was changed so that they would not correspond with political wards.

The drive to professionalize the police followed, which means that the concept of a career cop as we’d recognize it today is less than a century old.

Further campaigns for police professionalism were promoted as the 20th century progressed, but crime historian Samuel Walker’s The Police in America: An Introduction argues that the move toward professionalism wasn’t all good: that movement, he argues, promoted the creation of police departments that were “inward-looking” and “isolated from the public,” and crime-control tactics that ended up exacerbating tensions between police and the communities they watch over. And so, more than a half-century after Kennedy’s 1963 proclamation, the improvement and modernization of America’s surprisingly young police force continues to this day.

A version of this article also appears in the May 29 issue of TIME.


> CUBAN POPULAR PHRASES: “As a dollar flyer rocket” (Como Un Volador de a Peso). + FRASES POPULARES CUBANAS: “Como un Volador de a peso”.

‘As a dollar flyer rocket’. (Como un Volador de un Peso). A phrase coined by Cubans of old. Flying rockets light up the night and the minds of Cubans to create popular phrases.

Fireworks make their appearance in Europe, in Italy at the end of the quattrocento, as a typically craft activity, which can hardly be mechanized without losing some of its most outstanding virtues.

Florence seems to have been the center of this event, which saw a great boom during the sixteenth century, with fireworks displays frequently offered at civic or religious festivals and, above all, the day of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Pyrotechnics as we know it today is born with the discovery of black powder, and this is produced, according to Chinese documentation, in the 9th century AD, under the Thang dynasty, by one or more unknown alchemists.

The flying rocket is undoubtedly the oldest piece of aerial fire, witnessed in China as early as the twelfth century of our era, and the dimensions of the cartridge (without the cane or rudder) can vary from about 6 by 40 mm up to 25 by 200.

A Chinese monk named Li Tian is credited with the invention of fireworks.

It is said that when George Washington was sworn in as the first president of the United States on the faraway date of April 1789, all the bells rang with joy and joy, and the city was lit with fireworks in the night.

In Cuba, as in other Latin countries, pyrotechnics also arrived very early and although there are no well-founded notes on the subject in the Christmas celebrations and religious and patriotic celebrations of yesteryear fireworks were reasons of singular interest.

In Jaruco, a city on the outskirts of Havana, Porfirio Hernández, nicknamed “the pilot”, who became famous for his bitter street debates about baseball, fired one of those thunderous devices when his team Almendares wins the game.

The picaresque creole was in charge of introducing to the speech of men, women and children a locution related to the most sonorous and fast of the artifacts used and that in the decade of the 40 of century XX had a cost of a weight in all the national territory.

The speed with which this explosive rises to the sky and its price of sale to the public in that time, they agreed and then, the phrase was born like a flying of to weight, to identify the fast movements of one or several people when walking.

Frases Populares Cubanas: “Como un Volador de a peso”.

‘Como un volador de a peso’. Una frase que acuñaron los cubanos de antaño. Los cohetes voladores iluminan la noche y la mente de los cubanos para crear frases populares.

Los fuegos artificiales, hacen su aparición en Europa, en la Italia de fines del quattrocento, como una actividad típicamente artesanal, que difícilmente podrá ser mecanizada sin perder algunas de sus virtudes más sobresalientes.

Florencia parece haber sido el centro de este suceso, que conoció un gran auge durante el siglo XVI, con espectáculos de fuegos artificiales ofrecidos frecuentemente en fiestas cívicas o religiosas y, sobre todo, el día de San Pedro y San Pablo.

La pirotecnia tal y como hoy la entendemos nace con el descubrimiento de la pólvora negra y éste se produce, según documentación en China, en el siglo IX de nuestra era, bajo la dinastía Thang, por uno o varios alquimistas desconocidos.

El cohete volador, es sin duda la pieza más antigua de fuego aéreo, atestiguada en China ya en el siglo XII de nuestra era, y las dimensiones del cartucho (sin la cana o timón) pueden variar extraordinariamente, desde unos 6 por 40 mm hasta 25 por 200.

A un monje chino llamado Li Tian, se le acredita la invención de los fuegos artificiales.

Se dice que cuando George Washington fue juramentado como el primer presidente de Estados Unidos en la lejana fecha de abril de 1789, todas las campanas repicaron de júbilo y alegría, y la ciudad estaba iluminada con fuegos artificiales en la noche.

En Cuba como en otros países latinos la pirotecnia llegó también muy temprano y aunque no existen apuntes bien fundamentados al respecto en las fiesta navideñas y celebraciones religiosa y patrióticas de antaño los fuegos artificiales constituían motivos de singular interés.

En Jaruco, una ciudad ubicada en las afueras de La Habana, Porfirio Hernández, alias “el piloto”, que cobró fama por sus enconados debates callejeros sobre béisbol, disparaba uno de aquellos estruendosos dispositivos cuando su equipo Almendares gana el juego.

La picaresca criolla se encargó de introducir al habla de hombres, mujeres y niños una locución relacionada con el más sonoro y rápido de los artefactos empleados y que en la década del 40 del siglo XX tenía un costo de un peso en todo el territorio nacional.

La velocidad con que este explosivo se eleva al cielo y su precio de venta al público en aquella época, coincidieron y entonces, nació la frase como un volador de a peso, para identificar los rápidos movimientos de alguna o varias personas al andar.


China Built a Flying Saucer

Is the Chinese government making an investment in flying saucers? It looks that way, based on images circulating from this past weekend's 5th China Helicopter Exposition, held in the northern Tianjin region. The mockup in this photo sure resembles the classic model of a UFO:

The expo, run by the regional Tianjin government, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC), and the Chinese People's Liberation Army Ground Force, offered a chance for businesses to "demonstrate their innovations and technologies," according to its website. That's common enough for an expo, but the builders of this mockup seem to have gone the extra mile. It's assumed that a subsidiary of the state-owned AVIC built the demonstration, but it's unclear which one.

Online translations show that the ship is called a Super Great White Shark.

A rough translation from Twitter provides a description for the vehicle.

The vehicle certainly looks unconventional, but the Chinese military wouldn't be the first to try out the circular design. The U.S. military has toyed with many circular vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles, most notably the Avro Canada VZ-9 Avrocar. A joint collaboration between the Army and Air Force, each division wanted the round flyer for different reasons.

The Army saw it as an all-terrain troop transport and reconnaissance craft, while the Air Force envisioned a craft that could hover below enemy radar and then zoom up to supersonic speed. Builders tried to please both parties, and in the process, they failed both.

It appears that Chinese builders have gone bigger than the Avrocar ever did the test models were under 5 feet tall, but had an 18-foot wingspan. Until the vehicle is in the air, however, it's impossible to say if these engineers have solved the problems that others faced over 50 years ago.


Volador

Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for volador in
Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.)

Adjective Edit

volador m sg (feminine singular voladora, neuter singular volador or voladoro, masculine plural voladores, feminine plural voladores)

Etymology Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Adjective Edit

volador (žensko voladora, masculine plural voladors, feminine plural voladores)

Further reading Edit

    v Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans. v Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana. v Diccionari normatiu valencià, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. v Diccionari català-valencià-balear, Antoni Maria Alcover and Francesc de Borja Moll, 1962.

Adjective Edit

volador (žensko voladora, masculine plural voladores, feminine plural voladoras)


Modern Day Celebrations

In Poland, the ancient December solstice observance before Christianity involved people showing forgiveness and sharing food. It was a tradition that can still be seen in what is known as Gody.

In the northwestern corner of Pakistan, a festival called Chaomos takes place among the Kalasha or Kalash Kafir people. It lasts for at least seven days, including the day of the December solstice. It involves ritual baths as part of a purification process, as well as singing and chanting, a torchlight procession, dancing, bonfires, and festive eating.


Other Sections

1937 Federal Old Age Pensions started, 1942 United Nations established, 1929 Influenza Epidemic death toll over 200,000, 1914 Henry Ford introduces $5.00 per day wages, 2007 Apple introduces the Apple iPhone, 1952 "Today" Program Begins on NBC, 1966 Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister of India, 1920 Prohibition takes effect, 2008 Black Monday in worldwide stock markets, 1935 First Canned Beer Sold, 1926 John Logie Baird first public demonstration of a television system , 1951 Nevada Nuclear Test begin In Nevada 1986 The space shuttle Challenger explodes, 1969 The Beatles make their last public performance

1925 Sears Roebuck opens its first store, 1949 First 45 RPM vinyl record released, 1959 Barbie Doll invented by Ruth Handler, 2004 Facebook is founded by Mark Zuckerberg , 1910 Boy Scouts of America incorporated, 1952 Queen Elizabeth II becomes Queen, 1990 Nelson Mandela is released from prison after 27 years, 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre, 1879 1st Woolworth 5 Cents store opened, 1991 Gulf War Ends

1936 Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam) is completed, 1965 "The Sound of Music" starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer has its world premiere in New York, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurated as the 32nd president of the United States, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his revolutionary new invention the telephone , 1974 Work on the 800 mile long Alaska Oil pipeline begins, 1931 Nevada Legalizes Gambling, 1995 Sarin gas terrorist attack on the Japanese Subway, 1981 Prince Charles and Diana Wedding, 1963 The Beatles' first album "Please Please Me" is released in England, 1973 Pink Floyd release the album "Dark Side of the Moon," 1980 Mount St. Helen's Erupts 1961 U.S. President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps

2005 Pope John Paul II Dies, 2010 Apple Releases iPad, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. murdered, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders, 1954 Bill Haley and the Comets record "Rock Around the Clock," 1999 Columbine High School Shooting, 2010 Deepwater Horizon explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, 1989 Student Protest Tiananmen Square , 1985 The Coca-Cola Company announced New Coke, 1956 Elvis Presley has his first number one hit with "Heartbreak Hotel," 1994 Nelson Mandela voted as President of South Africa

1931 The Empire State Building in New York officially opens, 1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes British Prime Minister , 1937 The German airship Hindenburg (the largest dirigible ever built) burst into flames, 1945 VE Day/Victory In Europe Declared, 1948 The independent state of Israel is proclaimed as British rule in Palestine came to an end, 1954 The United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education, 1977 First of the Star Wars films opens, 1911 The first ever running of the Indianapolis 500

Junija
1938 Superman appears for the first time in D.C. Comics, 1967 Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band released by the Beatles, 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests end when Chinese troops kill hundreds, 1944 World War II Operation Overlord/D-Day , 1994 O.J. Simpson police car chase following the murder of his wife Nicole Brown Simpson, 1982 The Falkland Islands War ends, 1975 The summer blockbuster movie "Jaws" is released, 1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the GI Bill, 1959 The St. Lawrence Seaway has its official opening, 1997 First Harry Potter book "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" released in the UK

Julija
1776 United States Declaration of Independence signed, 1996 The first cloning of an animal Dolly the Sheep, 1985 The Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior is sunk, 2008 Oil hits an all time high of $147 a barrel, 1954 "Operation Wetback" is launched by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1923 Insulin introduced, 1969 Apollo 11 astronauts make history when the first man lands on the moon , 1956 Suez Crisis begins 1971 Voting Age in the United States is lowered to 18

1990 Iraq Invades Kuwait, 1914 Germany and France declare war, 1989 The US Savings and Loan Crisis, 1974 Richard Nixon announces his resignation , 1945 Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki, 1945 Truman announces Japanese surrender, 1981 IBM releases its first Personal Computer, 1914 Panama Canal opens, 1969 Woodstock Music Festival, 1968 Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia, 2005 Hurricane Katrina strikes New Orleans

1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany , 1956 Elvis Presley appears on Ed Sullivan's show, 2001 9/11 Attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon, 1975 Inflation hits 26% in the UK, 1960 Chubby Checker has a number 1 record with The Twist, 1937 J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Hobbit" published, 1908 First factory-built Ford Model T completed, 1981 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes first female U.S. Supreme Court justice in history

1927 Work begins on Mount Rushmore, 1947 US minimum wage of 40 cents per hour, 1973 Sydney Opera House opens , 1966 Aberfan Disaster, 1929 Wall Street crash (Black Monday)

1938 Seabiscuit race against War Admiral at Pimlico, 1969 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) established, 1979 U.S. embassy in Tehran 90 hostages taken, 1960 Senator John F. Kennedy wins the election for the president of the United States, 1989 Berlin Wall comes down allowing East and West Berlin to visit, 1926 U.S. Route 66 established, 1990 Sir Tim Berners-Lee formal proposal for the World Wide Web

1990 Channel Tunnel links UK to Europe, 1984 Bhopal Chemical Accident , 1954 First Burger King is opened in Miami, 1941 US enters World War II, 1939 Gone With The Wind premieres, 1983 Harrods Department Store bombing, 1997 The film "Titanic" opened in American theaters, 2004 A tsunami caused by an earthquake under the Indian Ocean leaves 216,000 dead in 13 countries


Carístico

Raised in the notorious Tepito district of Mexico City, he began his career wrestling under his father's name as Dr. Karonte, Jr. at the age of 13. In 2000, he adopted the name of Astro Boy and started getting noticed working undercards for Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL). In, 2001, he traveled to Japan and began wrestling as Komachi in Michinoku Pro Wrestling before returning to CMLL

Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre

El Principe De Plata y Oro (2004–2009)

In 2004, he was repackaged as Místico with a religious persona. He debuted in Arena México in June and spent much of the following months teaming with Volador, Jr. and Misterioso, Jr. in the second or third matches on the card. He participated in the 6th Annual Leyenda de Plata tournament but his push didn't take off until he won the Gran Alternativa tag team tournament with established star, El Hijo del Santo, claiming "Místico es chévere". Shortly afterwards, the bookers began teaming him with other established técnicos (faces) such as Negro Casas and Shocker against the big rudo (heel) groups, Los Guerreros del Infierno and La Furia del Norte. His stature made him an underdog and his high flying moves such as diving arm-drags made him popular with Mexico City crowds. Wrestling Observer Newsletter voted Místico the 2006 "Performer of the Year", "Biggest Box Office Draw", and "Best Flying Wrestler" in their "Year-End Awards". He was also ranked third in Pro Wrestling Illustrated's list of the top 500 wrestlers of 2007.

In 2005, he continued working against Los Guerreros, winning important singles matches against Rey Bucanero, Mephisto and Tarzan Boy in CMLL's secondary arena, Arena Coliseo. He won his first title by defeating Guerreros member Averno for the NWA World Middleweight Championship on February 11. The match was well received by the audience in attendance and fans near the ring threw money into the ring as a sign of appreciation. Two weeks later, he participated in his first singles main event match when he faced Guerreros leader Último Guerrero in Arena México. He won the fall in two falls after Guerrero was disqualified in the first fall and was pinned in the second with a small package. The match sparked a program with the recently turned Dr. Wagner, Jr. teaming with Místico against Último Guerrero and Rey Bucanero. After that program died down, Místico became involved in a feud with Perro Aguayo, Jr. and his Los Perros del Mal group. After defeating Aguayo in a singles match, the two exchanged hair versus mask challenges so Místico was added to the already planned eight-man cage match where the last man in the cage lost his hair or mask. Místico joined Negro Casas, Heavy Metal, Universo 2000 and Máscara Mágica against Aguayo's group consisting of Damián 666, Halloween and Héctor Garza leading up to the match but neither Místico or Aguayo were involved in the finish of the match where Damián pinned Máscara Mágica.

In September, he reheated his feud with Último Guerrero with another singles match but in the third fall, he was attacked by Atlantis, turning Atlantis heel. Místico worked a short program with Atlantis but after he defeated Atlantis in a singles match in October, Atlantis focused more on former tag partner Blue Panther.

In 2006, Místico was the biggest star in Mexico. He main evented eighteen events during the year that drew more than ten thousand people. In the early part of the year, he teamed up with Black Warrior in two unsuccessful CMLL World Tag Team Championship challenges. In the second one, Black Warrior turned on Místico and the two began a feud. While Black Warrior was wrestling in Japan, Místico and Negro Casas defeated Averno and Mephisto for the CMLL World Tag Team Championship on April 14. When Warrior returned, the feud picked up again and Black Warrior handed Místico his first major singles defeat when he pinned him and took his NWA Middleweight Championship on a May 12 Arena México show. On September 29, Místico defeated Black Warrior in a mask versus mask match in the main event of the CMLL 73rd Anniversary Show, his first major mask win. On April 10, 2007, Místico defeated Mephisto to capture the CMLL World Welterweight Championship.

Capitalizing on Místico's popularity, the CMLL created a comic book starring Místico as an urban hero. The comic reached its 50th issue in December 2007.

The Wrestling Observer is reporting that Místico was injured on September 28 during a match in Toluca, Mexico. He reportedly was coming off the top rope to the floor attempting a spinning head scissors, but his opponent slipped and Místico landed on his head. He was rushed to the back, evaluated and then rushed to Mexico City for testing. It was ruled he had a contusion on his brain, while X-Rays have ruled out more serious injuries. He is said to be on medication right now to avoid further inflammation of the neck and spine

Sometime in 2007, WWE offered him a deal to sign with them but due to commitments with CMLL, he was unable to sign with them at the time. Reportedly, the likes of Dean Malenko, Paul London, and Rey Mysterio pushed WWE to offer him a deal in 2007-2008. In December 2007, the Mexico City newspaper The Record reported that WWE was back in talks with Místico. In March 2008, it was reported that Místico contacted TNA to see if they were interested in having him work for their promotion company. If TNA were to agree, Mistico would be featured as a special attraction due to his commitments with CMLL.

On March 10, 2008, Místico and Hector Garza became CMLL World Tag Team champions by defeating Averno and Mephisto. In April, the commission declared the title vacant after a match resulted in a double disqualification. Mistico and Garza reclaimed the tag team title by defeating Averno and Mephisto in a rematch. They eventually lost the title to Averno and Mephisto in December. On March 20, 2009, Mistico lost his CMLL World Welterweight Championship to Negro Casas in a title match. Subsequently, challenges were made for a Lucha de Apuesta between Místico and either El Felino or Mr. Niebla, but those plans were soon replaced by an Apuesta between Místico and Negro Casas, as the main event of the CMLL 76th Anniversary Show on September 18, 2009. Místico won the match two falls to one and then watched as Negro Casas was shaved bald. After the match Místico made an Apuesta challenge to El Felino, Casas' cornerman. On December 11, 2009 Místico won a cage match against El Sagrado, Blue Panther, El Terrible, El Felino, El Texano Jr., El Hijo del Fantasma and Tetsuya Naitō to win the Festival Mundial de Lucha Libre (World Festial of Wrestling) championship.

Feuding with Volado,Jr. (2010-2011)

On January 22, 2010 Místico teamed up with Averno to participate in CMLL's "Torneo Internacional de Parejas Increíbles" ("International Amazing Pairs tournament"), a tournament where CMLL teams up a Tecnico (Místico) and a Rudo (Averno) for a tournament. On the night of the tournament Místico and Averno showed some surprising team unity by wearing outfits that mixed the style of each wrestler. In the first round the team defeated Ephesto and Euforia, not showing any friction between the two, despite their long history of animosity. In the second round Místico's attitude seemingly changed as he began attacking Volador Jr., someone he usually teams with. Místico even went so far as to ripping up Volador's mask, a rudo move, and won the match after an illegal low blow to Volador, Jr. After the match Místico took the microphone and claimed that "all was fair in war and defending Mexico City", a comment that drew a lot of boos from the crowd. Místico continued to work a Rudo style in the semi-final match, ripping at Máscara Dorada's mask. When Místico's team lost to Dorada and Atlantis the two tecnicos argued after the match. Further hints at Místico potentially turning Rudo came a few days later as Volador, Jr. challenged Místico to a one on one match, a Super Libre (match with no rules) match if Místico would agree to it. The two met in the main event of an Arena México show on February 5, 2010 and this time Místico was clearly a Rúdo, tearing so viciously at Volador's mask that a new mask had to be brought to the ring during falls. In the second fall Místico pulled his mask off and threw it to Volador, Jr. in an attempt to get Volador, Jr. disqualified. The end came when Volador, Jr. reversed Místico's La Mística and won by applying the same move to Místico. Following the match Místico angrily proclaimed “¡Yo soy la máxima figura de la lucha libre!”. ("I am the greatest figure in wrestling"). On February 12, 2010 Místico lost the Mexican National Light Heavyweight Championship to Volador, Jr. losing two falls to one. On the February 26 CMLL Super Viernes show it was announced that Místico, Volador, Jr., La Sombra and El Felino would face off in a four way Lucha de Apuesta match as the main event of Homenaje a Dos Leyendas 2010. La Sombra was the first man pinned at Dos Leyendas and El Felino was the second, forcing the two to put their masks on the line. After a long match La Sombra pinned El Felino. After the match he unmasked and announced that his real name was Jorge Luis Casas Ruiz. Following Dos Leyendas Místico announced that he was done being a rúdo and returned to the técnico side, although Volador, Jr. kept suspicious of Místico. The storyline between the two cooled off for a bit, but in late May, 2010 tension resumed as Místico and Volador, Jr. faced off once again over the Mexican Light Heavyweight Championship, with Volador, Jr. retaining the belt. At the 2010 Sin Salida the two were on opposite sides of a Relevos incredibles, Místico teamed with Máscara Dorada and Mr. Águila while Volador, Jr. teamed with Averno and Negro Casas. Averno came to the ring wearing the same combined Averno/Místico mask he had worn for the Parejas Incredibles tournament and tried to convince Místico to join the rúdo side, only to turn around and reveal that both he and Volador, Jr. were wearing a combined Averno/Volador, Jr. mask underneath. Volador, Jr. worked as a rúdo throughout the match, losing the match for his team when he tried to cheat but was caught by the referee. On July 12, 2010, at the Promociones Gutiérrez 1st Anniversary Show, Místico participated in a match where 10 men put their mask on the line in a match that featured five pareja incredibles teams, with the losing team being forced to wrestle each other with their mask on the line. His partner in the match was El Oriental, facing off against the teams of Atlantis and Olímpico, La Sombra and Histeria, El Alebrije and Volador, Jr., Último Guerrero and Averno. Místico and El Oriental ended up being the last team and were forced to wrestle for their masks. After a long match Místico defeated El Oriental. After the match El Oriental was forced to remove his mask and show his face. On August 16, 2010 it was announced that Místico was one of 14 men putting their mask on the line in a Luchas de Apuestas steel cage match, the main event of the CMLL 77th Anniversary Show. Místico was the 11th and second to last man to leave the steel cage, keeping his mask safe. The match came down to La Sombra pinning Olímpico to unmask him.

International travel (2008–2011)

In July 2008, Místico travelled to China and participated in the second Beijing International Martial Arts Training Camp, organized by Belgium-based martial arts instructor Mike Martello. Throughout the training camp, Místico received instruction in Chinese traditional wrestling (shuaijiao) from Shuaijiao expert Yu Shaoyi (two times regional champion of Beijing) and joint-locking techniques (Qinna) from Mike Martello. The event was covered by Televisa, and was broadcast in a series of 16 clips during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

On January 4, 2009, Mistico made his debut for New Japan Pro Wrestling (NJPW) at Wrestle Kingdom III in the Tokyo Dome. Mistico wrestled in the opening match, teaming with Prince Devitt and Ryusuke Taguchi to defeat Averno, Gedo and Jado when Mistico made Averno submit using his trademark move "La Mística". After the match, Místico announced that he would like to return to New Japan Pro Wrestling and even stated he would like to challenge for the IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship. On February 15, 2009 Místico successfully defended his CMLL Welterweight Championship against Mephisto on a NJPW Show in Sumo Hall, Tokyo. Místico injured his knee during the match, although he was back in action by the end of the week. Místico, Misterioso, Jr. and Okumura were scheduled to work for NJPW in early May but due to the outbreak of the Swine flue pandemic the tour was cancelled.

In August, 2009 Místico went on his third tour with NJPW, accompanied Okumura. On August 13, 2009 Místico teamed up with Tiger Mask IV to defeat Okumura and Tomohiro Ishii. On August 15, 2009, Místico defeated Tiger Mask IV to become the new IWGP Junior Heavyweight Champion. Upon his return to Mexico, Místico teamed with Tiger Mask IV and Shocker as they defeated Ultimo Guerrero, Atlantis, and Arkangel at Dragomania IV. Místico had his first successful IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship defense, as he defended against Jushin Liger in the main event of a CMLL show in Puebla, Puebla on September 28, 2009. On November 8 at NJPW's Destruction '09 show Mistíco lost the IWGP Title back to Tiger Mask. Místico returned to Japan in January 2011, taking part in the CMLL and New Japan Pro Wrestling co–promoted Fantasticamania 2011 shows. On the first show on January 22 Místico teamed with IWGP Heavyweight Champion Hiroshi Tanahashi and IWGP Junior Heavyweight Champion Prince Devitt in a six-man tag team match, where they were defeated by Averno, Shinsuke Nakamura and Tetsuya Naitō, when Averno pinned Místico. At the second show the following day, Místico defeated Averno in a singles match, which would turn out to be his final match for CMLL.

World Wrestling Entertainment

On January 30, 2011 SuperLuchas Magazine confirmed that Urive had signed a contract with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). On February 24, WWE held a press conference in Mexico City to introduce Urive under his new name, Sin Cara, which translates literally to "Without a Face". On March 25, 2011, Sin Cara made his WWE debut at Raw's live event at Assembly Hall in Champaign, Illinois, defeating Primo in a singles match. On March 28, WWE announced that Sin Cara would be making his televised debut on the April 4 edition of Surov. In his debut appearance, Sin Cara attacked WWE United States Champion Sheamus, saving former champion Daniel Bryan and establishing himself as a face. On the same week's edition of SmackDown, Sin Cara made a similar appearance, this time attacking Jack Swagger and cementing his face status. On the April 11 episode of Surov, Sin Cara made his televised in-ring debut, defeating Primo. The next week in London, Sin Cara teamed with John Cena to defeat the then WWE Champion, The Miz and Alex Riley.

In the 2011 WWE Draft, Sin Cara was drafted to SmackDown!, making his first appearance as part of the roster on the April 29 episode with a win over Jack Swagger. Sin Cara then started a storyline with Chavo Guerrero, who began guest commentating his matches and, much to Sin Cara's dismay, even helped him win matches by interfering in them. Sin Cara made his pay-per-view debut on May 22 at Over the Limit, defeating Chavo Guerrero. Afterwards, Sin Cara moved on to feuding with Cody Rhodes and Ted DiBiase, while teaming with Daniel Bryan, with the two saving each other from two–on–one beatdowns on the June 3 and 10 editions of SmackDown. Sin Cara's undefeated streak came to an end on the July 1 edition of SmackDown, when he was defeated by former World Heavyweight Champion Christian. On July 18, Sin Cara participated in the second annual Money in the Bank PPV, but was unsuccessful in winning the ladder match to earn a World Heavyweight Championship opportunity, after being taken out of the match with a storyline injury. The following day, WWE announced that it had suspended Sin Cara for 30 days for his first violation of its Wellness program. He would later claim in an interview that he did not know what he had tested positive for and claimed to only have gotten a routine injection for an injured knee in Mexico.

Feud with Sin Cara Negro (2011-2012)

The Sin Cara character returned on August 9 at the taping of the August 12 edition of SmackDown, defeating Tyson Kidd however with Urive still serving his suspension, Sin Cara was in this appearance portrayed by WWE developmental wrestler Hunico, while also having gone by the ring name "Mistico" in Mexico. After another week of Arias portraying Sin Cara, Urive returned under the mask on August 20 at a live event in Tacoma, Washington. On August 26 it was reported that Urive had been sent home from the week's SmackDown tapings, with Arias once again appearing on TV under the Sin Cara mask. During Urive's time away from WWE, the Sin Cara character seemingly turned heel by attacking Daniel Bryan.

At the tapings of the September 16 edition of SmackDown, Urive returned as the original Sin Cara, confronting the impostor version of the character. On the September 19 edition of Surov, the original Sin Cara was booked to face Cody Rhodes, but was prior to the start of the match attacked by the impostor character. After a brief brawl, the impostor would flee the ring defeated. On the September 23 edition of SmackDown, the impostor Sin Cara attacked the original version during his match with Daniel Bryan, then took his place in the match and pinned Bryan for the win. The following week the impostor revealed a new black attire to distinguish himself from the original version, while also explaining that he was going to steal the Sin Cara identity from Urive, just as Urive had stolen the Místico identity from him, leading to a match between the two Sin Caras at Hell in a Cell. To further help the distinguishment between the two characters, WWE began referring to the original as Sin Cara "Azul" (Blue) and the impostor as Sin Cara "Negro" (Black). At the pay-per-view on October 2, Sin Cara Azul defeated Sin Cara Negro in a singles match. After being defeated by WWE Champion Alberto Del Rio on the October 7 edition of SmackDown, Sin Cara Azul was again attacked by Sin Cara Negro. The rivalry culminated in a Mask vs. Mask match at the October 16 taping of SmackDown in Mexico City, where Sin Cara Azul was victorious, unmasking Sin Cara Negro by force after the match. He competed on Team Orton at Survivor Series, but suffered an injury during the match, keeping him out of action for 6 months.

On June 1, 2012, Sin Cara returned on Smackdown with a new costume with red and white colors. He faced off against Heath Slater and won. Sin Cara then made a return to Raw the following Monday, showing a different entrance and variant of his finisher, defeating Hunico. Three days later, Sin Cara returned to Raw, defeating old rival Hunico in a singles match. This rekindled their feud and on June 17 at No Way Out, Sin Cara defeated Hunico. On the July 9 episode of Raw, Sin Cara defeated Heath Slater to qualify for the World Heavyweight Championship Money in the Bank Ladder match at the Money in the Bank pay-per-view event, but was unsuccessful in the match itself, which was won by Dolph Ziggler.

Teaming with Rey Mysterio (2012-2013)

In August, Sin Cara rekindled a feud with Cody Rhodes, who claimed he was wearing a mask to cover his ugly face. Sin Cara scored pinfalls over Cody Rhodes in consecutive matches on both Raw and SmackDown, both times taking advantage of Rhodes trying to remove his mask. He then also saved fellow masked wrestler Rey Mysterio from being unmasked by Rhodes and afterward teamed up with Mysterio to put one of his masks on Rhodes. After defeating WWE Intercontinental Champion The Miz in a non-title match. Sin Cara was granted an opportunity to win the title at Night of Champions in a fatal four-way, which also included Rhodes and Mysterio and saw The Miz retain the title. The following day on Raw, Sin Cara and Mysterio teamed up to defeat Epico and Primo in a tag team match. Sin Cara and Mysterio entered a tournament to determine the number one contenders to the WWE Tag team Championship, defeating Epico and Primo and the Prime Time Players (Darren Young and Titus O'Neil) to advance to the finals. Sin Cara and Mysterio lost the final tournament match to Team Rhodes Scholars (Cody Rhodes and Damien Sandow) on the October 22 episode of Raw. At Survivor Series, Sin Cara and Mysterio were victorious in a 10-man elimination match alongside Brodus Clay, Justin Gabriel, and Tyson Kidd against the Prime Time Players, Epico and Primo, and Tensai. On December 16 at TLC: Tables, Ladders, & Chairs, Sin Cara and Mysterio were defeated by Team Rhodes Scholars in a number one contenders tables match for the WWE Tag Team Championship. Two days later, Sin Cara suffered a legitimate leg injury and was written off television following an attack by The Shield.

Sin Cara returned on January 27, 2013, at the Royal Rumble, entering the Royal Rumble at number twenty nine, but was eliminated by Ryback. On the following episode of Smackdown, Sin Cara and Rey Mysterio defeated WWE Tag Team Champions Team Hell No (Daniel Bryan and Kane) in a non-title match. After spending two months off of television due to further injuries Sin Cara returned at a WWE house show on May 10 at Shreveport,Louisiana, teaming up with Adrian Neville and Bo Dallas in a winning effort against Michael McGillicutty and the Prime Time Players. Sin Cara returned to television on the May 15 episode of Superstars, defeating Intercontinental Champion Wade Barrett in a non-title match. During the August 19 episode of Raw, Sin Cara dislocated his ring finger during a match with Alberto Del Rio. Beginning on the December 2 Raw, Jorge Arias (Hunico) reprised his role as Sin Cara. In late January 2014, Urive announced his return to wrestling in Mexico, likely signifying an end to his time in WWE.

Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (2014–2015)

On February 19, 2014, the Wrestling Observer Newsletter reported that Urive had signed with Asistencia Asesoría y Administración and would be making his debut two days later. At the end of AAA's February 21 event, AAA's main rudo stable, La Sociedad, attacked the promotion's top tecnicos with help from the debuting Black Warrior. This led to AAA president Marisela Peña Roldán revealing her own surprise wrestler, Urive, who appeared on the darkened entrance stage, but did not enter the ring or say anything. It was later reported that Urive was under a WWE non-compete clause until May and could therefore not show his mask. On May 17, Urive made another appearance, during which he was referred to only as a "mysterious wrestler", attacking La Sociedad and targeting especially his old rival Averno, who was making his AAA debut. On May 28, AAA revealed promotional material, which suggested Urive would be returning to the Místico ring name, however, on June 5, the promotion revealed his new ring name as Myzteziz. The ring name is exclusive to AAA and Urive will continue to work as Sin Cara outside of the promotion. Myzteziz made his in-ring debut on June 7 at Verano de Escándalo, where he, Cibernético and La Parka defeated Averno, Chessman and El Hijo del Perro Aguayo in a six-man tag team main event, with Myzteziz submitting the AAA Latin American Champion Chessman for the win.