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Sedem čudes starega sveta - seznam in časovnica

Sedem čudes starega sveta - seznam in časovnica


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Neverjetna umetniška in arhitekturna dela, znana kot sedem čudes starodavnega sveta, pričajo o iznajdljivosti, domišljiji in trdem delu, ki so ga sposobna človeška bitja. So pa tudi opomniki na človeško sposobnost nesoglasij, uničenja in po možnosti olepševanja. Takoj, ko so stari pisatelji sestavili seznam "sedmih čudes", je postal krma za razpravo o tem, kateri dosežki si zaslužijo vključitev. Prvotni seznam izvira iz dela Filona iz Bizanca, napisanega leta 225 pr. poklical Na sedem čudes. Konec koncev so se človeške roke združile z naravnimi silami, da bi uničile vsa čudesa razen enega. Poleg tega je možno, da vsaj eno čudo sploh ne bi obstajalo. Kljub temu pa vseh sedem še naprej navdihuje in slavi kot izjemne produkte ustvarjalnosti in spretnosti prvih zemeljskih civilizacij.

Velika piramida v Gizi, Egipt

Poglej več: 10 osupljivih fotografij starodavnih egipčanskih piramid

Velika piramida, ki se nahaja v Gizi na zahodnem bregu reke Nil severno od Kaira v Egiptu, je edino čudo starodavnega sveta, ki je preživelo do danes. Je del skupine treh piramid - Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) in Menkaura (Mycerimus) - ki so bile zgrajene med 2700 pr. in 2500 pr. kot kraljeve grobnice. Največji in najbolj impresiven je Khufu, znan kot "Velika piramida", ki pokriva 13 hektarjev in naj bi vseboval več kot 2 milijona kamnitih blokov, ki tehtajo od dve do 30 ton vsak. Khufu je več kot 4000 let vladal kot najvišja stavba na svetu. Pravzaprav je sodobni človek potreboval do 19. stoletja, da je zgradil višjo strukturo. Presenetljivo so bile skoraj simetrične egipčanske piramide zgrajene brez pomoči sodobnega orodja ali geodetske opreme. Kako so torej Egipčani zgradili piramide? Znanstveniki verjamejo, da so Egipčani za premikanje kamnov uporabljali valjarje in sani. Poševne stene, ki so bile namenjene posnemanju žarkov Ra, boga sonca, so bile prvotno zgrajene kot stopnice, nato pa napolnjene z apnencem. Notranjost piramid je vključevala ozke hodnike in skrite komore v neuspešnem poskusu preprečiti roparje grobov. Čeprav so sodobni arheologi med ruševinami našli nekaj velikih zakladov, menijo, da je bila večina piramid, ki so jih nekoč vsebovale, izropana v 250 letih po njihovi dokončanju.

Viseči babilonski vrtovi

Po mnenju starogrških pesnikov je babilonski kralj Nebukadnezar II okoli leta 600 pr. Vrtovi naj bi bili zasajeni kar 75 čevljev v zraku na veliki kvadratni opečni terasi, ki je bila postavljena v korakih kot gledališče. Kralj je domnevno zgradil visoke vrtove, da bi olajšal domotožje svoje ljubimke Amytis zaradi naravnih lepot njenega doma v Mediji (severozahodni del sodobnega Irana). Kasnejši pisci so opisali, kako so ljudje lahko hodili pod čudovitimi vrtovi, ki so počivali na visokih kamnitih stebrih. Sodobni znanstveniki so sklepali, da bi jih za preživetje vrtov morali namakati s sistemom, ki ga sestavljajo črpalka, vodno kolo in cisterne za prenašanje vode iz Evfrata veliko čevljev v zrak. Čeprav v grški in rimski literaturi obstaja več poročil o vrtovih, nobeden od njih ni iz prve roke in v babilonskih klinopisih ni nobene omembe vrtov. Posledično večina sodobnih znanstvenikov meni, da je obstoj vrtov del navdihnjene in splošno uveljavljene, a še vedno izmišljene zgodbe.

Kip Zeusa v Olimpiji

Poglej več: Presenetljive fotografije klasične grške arhitekture

Slavni kip Zeusa, kralja bogov v grški mitologiji, je izdelal atenski kipar Phidias in ga dokončal in postavil v Zevsov tempelj v Olimpiji, na mestu starih olimpijskih iger, okoli sredine petega stoletja pr. Kip je upodobil boga groma, ki je z golimi prsmi sedel pri lesenem prestolu. Naslonjala za roke prestolov sta držala dve izrezljani sfingi, mitska bitja z žensko glavo in prsmi, levjim telesom in ptičjimi krili. Kip Zeusa je bil bogato okrašen z zlatom in slonovino. Pri 40 čevljih je bil tako visok, da se je njegova glava skoraj dotaknila vrha templja. Po legendi je kipar Phidias po končanem kipu prosil Zeusa za znak njegove odobritve; kmalu zatem je tempelj udarila strela. Kip Zeusa je več kot osem stoletij krasil tempelj v Olimpiji, preden so krščanski duhovniki prepričali rimskega cesarja, da je tempelj zaprl v četrtem stoletju našega štetja. uničen v požaru leta 462.

Artemidin tempelj v Efezu

Dejansko je bilo več kot en Artemidin tempelj: vrsta oltarjev in templjev je bila uničena in nato obnovljena na istem mestu v Efezu, grškem pristaniškem mestu na zahodni obali današnje Turčije. Najbolj čudovita od teh struktur sta bila dva marmorna templja, zgrajena okoli leta 550 pr. in 350 pr. n. št. "Razen Olimpa sonce nikoli ni gledalo na kaj tako veličastnega," je pisatelj Antipater iz Sidona zapisal o Artemidinem templju v Efezu.

Prvotni Artemidin tempelj sta zasnovala kretski arhitekt Chersiphron in njegov sin Metagenes, okrasili pa so ga nekateri najbolj slavni umetniki antičnega sveta. Stavba je zgorela 21. julija 356 pr.n.št., po legendi iste noči, ko se je rodil Aleksander Veliki. Zažgal ga je grški državljan po imenu Herostratus, ki je trdil, da je zažgal čudo, da bi bilo njegovo ime znano zgodovini. Obsojen je bil na smrt in vlada je razglasila nezakonito izgovarjanje njegovega imena.

Približno šest let pozneje se je začela gradnja novega Artemidinega templja. Nova stavba je bila obdana z marmornimi stopnicami, ki so vodile na več kot 400 čevljev dolgo teraso. V notranjosti je stalo 127 60-metrskih marmornih stebrov in kip Artemide, grške boginje lova. Arheologi se ne strinjajo, ali je imela stavba strop na prostem ali je bila prekrita z lesenimi ploščicami. Tempelj so v veliki meri uničili Ostrogoti leta 262 n.št. in šele v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja so arheologi izkopali prve ruševine tempeljskih stebrov na dnu reke Cayster.

Mavzolej v Halicarnassusu

Mavzolej v Halicarnassusu, ki je danes na jugovzhodu Turčije, je bil grob, ki ga je Artemisia zgradila za svojega moža Mausolusa, kralja Karnije v Mali Aziji, po njegovi smrti leta 353 pr. Mausolus je bil tudi Artemisijin brat in po legendi je bila ob njegovem prehodu tako žalostna, da mu je pepel pomešala z vodo in ga poleg tega, da je naročila gradnjo mavzoleja, popila. Ogromni mavzolej je bil v celoti izdelan iz belega marmorja in naj bi bil visok približno 135 čevljev. Kompleksna zasnova stavbe, sestavljena iz treh pravokotnih plasti, je bila morda poskus uskladitve likijskega, grškega in egipčanskega arhitekturnega sloga. Prva plast je bila 60-metrska stopnica, sledila je srednja plast 36 ionskih stebrov in stopničasta streha v obliki piramide. Na samem vrhu strehe je ležala grobnica, okrašena z delom štirih kiparjev, in 20-metrska marmorna izvedba štirisobnega kočije. Mavzolej je bil v 13. stoletju v potresu v veliki meri uničen, njegovi ostanki pa so bili kasneje uporabljeni pri utrjevanju gradu. Leta 1846 so bili iz gradu izvlečeni kosi enega od friz mavzoleja in zdaj skupaj z drugimi relikvijami s halikarnaškega mesta v britanskem muzeju v Londonu.

Kolos z Rodosa

Rodos na Kolosu je bila ogromna bronasta skulptura boga sonca Heliosa, ki so jo v tretjem stoletju pred našim štetjem zgradili Rodoni več kot 12 let. Mesto je bilo tarča makedonskega obleganja v začetku četrtega stoletja pr. in po legendi so Rodijci prodali orodje in opremo, ki so jo pustili Makedonci za plačilo Kolosa. Kip, ki ga je oblikoval kipar Chares, je bil na 100 čevljev najvišji v starem svetu. Dokončana je bila okoli leta 280 pr. in stal šestdeset let, dokler ga ni podrl potres. Nikoli ni bil obnovljen. Sto let pozneje so Arabci vdrli na Rodos in ostanke kipa prodali kot odpadno kovino. Zaradi tega arheologi ne vedo veliko o natančni lokaciji kipa ali o tem, kako je izgledal. Večina verjame, da je na njem upodobljen bog sonca, ki stoji gol, medtem ko je z eno roko dvignil baklo in v drugi držal kopje. Včasih je veljalo, da kip stoji z eno nogo na vsaki strani pristanišča, zdaj pa se večina znanstvenikov strinja, da so noge kipa najverjetneje zgrajene tesno skupaj, da prenesejo njegovo ogromno težo.

Aleksandrijski svetilnik

Aleksandrijski svetilnik se je nahajal na majhnem otoku, imenovanem Pharos, v bližini mesta Aleksandrija. Zasnoval ga je grški arhitekt Sostratos in dokončal okoli leta 270 pr. v času vladavine Ptolomeja II je svetilnik pomagal pri vodenju ladij reke Nil v in iz mestnega prometnega pristanišča. Arheologi so odkrili starodavne kovance, na katerih je bil upodobljen svetilnik, in iz njih sklepali, da ima zgradba tri stopnje: kvadratno raven na dnu, osmerokotno raven na sredini in cilindrični vrh. Nad tem je stal 16-metrski kip, najverjetneje Ptolemeja II. Ali Aleksandra Velikega, po katerem je mesto dobilo ime. Čeprav se ocene višine svetilnika gibljejo od 200 do 600 čevljev, večina sodobnih znanstvenikov meni, da je bil visok približno 380 čevljev. Svetilnik je bil postopoma uničen med vrsto potresov od leta 956 do 1323. Nekatere njegove ostanke so od takrat odkrili na dnu Nila.

7 novih čudes sveta

Leta 2007 je Fundacija New 7 Wonders izvedla natečaj za poimenovanje "novih 7 čudes sveta". Več deset milijonov ljudi je glasovalo za Unescovo svetovno dediščino, ki je bila na seznamu. Razprostirajo se na štirih celinah in vsako leto privabijo na tisoče turistov. So:

  • Kitajski zid (zgrajen 220 pr. N. Št. Do 1644 n. Št.)
  • Taj Mahal, Indija (zgrajen 1632-1648 n. Št.)
  • Petra, Jordanija (zgrajena v 4. stoletju pred našim štetjem-v 2. stoletju našega štetja)
  • Kolosej v Rimu, Italija (zgrajen 72–82)
  • Kip Kristusa Odrešenika, Rio de Janeiro, Brazilija (zgrajen 1926-1931)
  • Chichen Itza, Mehika (zgrajen 5-13 stoletje našega štetja)
  • Machu Picchu, Peru (zgrajen sredi 15. stoletja našega štetja)

PLUS: Številni kraji, ki trdijo, da so "osmo čudo sveta"


Sedem čudes starega sveta - seznam in časovnica - ZGODOVINA

Sedem čudes
O
iz starodavnega sveta
Avtor: Bob Frost
HistoryAccess.com, 2008


Velika piramida v Gizi (v središču) v Egiptu je edino od sedmih starodavnih čudes, ki še obstajajo. Letalo na tej fotografiji je ameriški bombnik B-1 na vadbenem letu. Spodaj je podobna fotografija, posneta v času prve svetovne vojne, letalo nemško.

T izvor tega seznama čudes najdemo v spisih Herodota, grškega zgodovinarja iz petega stoletja pred našim štetjem, ki je opisal številna zgodovinska najdišča v sredozemski regiji, vključno s piramidami in starodavnim Babilonom. Bil je prvi pisatelj, ki je o zgodovinskih odmevih poročal o takšnih krajih.

Različni pisatelji so skozi stoletja spreminjali skupino, med njimi Callimachus, Philo in Antipater. Sčasoma se je seznam postavil v kamen. Nekatere zgodnje različice so morda vključevale strukturo v Babilonu, imenovano Ishtar Gate, grozljivo konstrukcijo iz ploščic. Številka sedem je bila verjetno uporabljena zaradi svoje tisočletne medkulturne povezanosti z močjo in magijo-na primer, pogosto se pojavlja v Svetem pismu, najpomembnejše v zgodbi o ustvarjanju v Genezi in v knjigi Razodetja. Najgloblje korenine zanimanja človeštva za številko sedem najdemo v sedmih klasičnih planetih.

Današnji seznam starodavnih čudes morda ni tako sredozemsko usmerjen, morda bi vključeval Stonehenge v Angliji in dela Olmec v Mehiki. Kitajski zid pa se ni mogel kvalificirati - svojo današnjo obliko je dobil v času dinastije Ming (1368-1644 n. Št.). Tudi tempeljski kompleks Angkor Wat ne bi prerezal. Struktura v Kambodži je bila zgrajena okoli leta 1150 n.

Sedem čudes starega sveta je navdihnilo številne udarce. Na primer, nedavno je bil sestavljen seznam sedmih čudes narave:

Mount Everest
Viktorijini slapovi
Veliki kanjon
Veliki koralni greben
Severni sij
Paricutin (aktivni vulkan v Mehiki)
Pristanišče Rio de Janeiro

Leta 1991 je Časi iz Londona je izvedla anketo bralcev in navedla 10 vodilnih volivcev za & quotwonders sodobnega sveta & quot:

Operna hiša v Sydneyju
Vesoljski program ZDA
Letalo Concorde
Asuanski jez
Empire State Building
Most Golden Gate
Kanalski predor (kanal)
Disneyland/Disneyworld/Epcot
Panamski prekop
gora Rushmore

The Ekonomist revija 25. decembra 1993 izbrala sedem sodobnih tehnoloških čudes:

Mikročip
Kontracepcijske tablete
Telefon
Jumbo Jet
Gullfaks C Severno morje naftna platforma
Vodikova bomba
Človek na Luni

Lahko bi se vprašali, ali je naftna platforma Gullfaks C za Severno morje tako čudna, kot so ljudje pristali na Luni? Morda je njegova vključitev prizadevanje urednikov The Ekonomist ohraniti ugled zaradi kontradiktornosti in/ali nagajivosti.

Newsweek revija je aprila 2006 izbrala Sedem čudes sodobnega sveta:

Most Akashi-Kaikyo (Japonska)
Cerkev Lakewood (Teksas)
Mednarodna vesoljska postaja (Skyward)
Sydney Opera House (Avstralija)
Taipei 101 (Tajvan najvišja stavba na svetu leta 2006)
Palača parlamenta (Romunija)
South China Mall (Kitajska)

Fundacija New7Wonders je v 2000 -ih letih izvedla spletno anketiranje za "novih sedem čudes sveta". Izbranci:

Chichen Itza (starodavno mesto Majev)
Kip Kristusa Odrešenika v Riu de Janeiru
Kolosej v Rimu
Kitajski zid
Machu Picchu v Peruju (ruševine Inkov)
Petra, Jordanija (starodavno mesto)
Tadž Mahal
Kompleks piramid v Gizi (častni dodatek)

Za več informacij o sedmih čudežih starodavnega sveta glejte & quot; Sedem čudes sveta: zgodovina moderne domišljije & quot; John in Elizabeth Romer (1995 glej tudi njihov DVD v produkciji The Learning Channel). Glej tudi "Čuda antike" Leonarda Cottrella (1959).

Velika piramida v Gizi
Najstarejše in največje od sedmih čudes, Velika piramida v Gizi (znana tudi kot piramida Khufu in piramida Cheops), blizu Kaira v Egiptu, je edina, ki še vedno stoji.

To je bila najvišja umetna zgradba na svetu že 38 stoletij, od njene gradnje okoli 2560 pr. Piramida, zgrajena kot zadnje počivališče faraona Khufuja (Cheops), je visoka približno 45 nadstropij in pokriva 13 hektarjev na dnu. Znanstveniki razpravljajo o njegovih tehnikah gradnje - stari Egipčani niso vedeli za orodja, kot sta škripec ali blok in pribor. Ena teorija predlaga uporabo dolgih klančin, druga možnost pa je ročica za premikanje kamna s kratko kotno nogo na enem koncu. Sužnjevsko delo po najnovejših raziskavah verjetno ni bilo uporabljeno - delo na strukturi je bilo obravnavano kot čast in visok poklic.

Viseči babilonski vrtovi
To čudo je lahko le legenda.

Razkošje in prefinjenost Babilona sta bili v starem svetu aksiomatični. Babilonski kraljevi vrtovi, ki naj bi bili zgrajeni v šestem stoletju pred našim štetjem, naj bi vključevali gozd z & quot; spreminjajočimi se & quot; rastlinami - drevesi in rožami, gojenimi na kamnitih terasah, nad nivojem tal, ki so viseli nad sprehajalnimi stezami.

V starodavnih babilonskih besedilih ni bilo nobenega sklicevanja na take vrtove. Herodot jih ne omenja in arheološki dokazi zanje niso prepričljivi. Kljub temu je glede na neusmiljene gradbene dejavnosti kralja Nebukadnezarja, ki je vladal okoli leta 605-562 pr.

V devetdesetih letih so obiskovalcem Iraka predstavili domnevno & quotite & quot vrtove, kup generičnih ruševin.

Kip Zeusa v Olimpiji
Približno leta 435 pred našim štetjem je kipar Phidias postavil kip sedečega Zeusa, kralja grških bogov, v svetišču v Olimpiji v južni Grčiji. ( doma Zevsa je bila gora Olimp, 175 milj severno od svetišča.) Avtorja John in Elizabeth Romer menita, da je to "morda največje posamično čudo klasične dobe." (Velika piramida v Egiptu je bila pred klasično dobo.)

Kip Zeusa, tri nadstropje, je liberalno uporabljal slonovino in zlato ter eksotično bleščal v svojem senčnem templju z dorskimi stebri. Sčasoma je bilo delo ukradeno in odnešeno v Carigrad (danes ’s Istanbul), kjer je bilo uničeno v požaru leta 462 n.

Kipar Phidias (okoli 500–432 pr. N. Št.) Je bil eden največjih umetnikov antičnih časov. Njegovo Zeus uvršča s svojim Atena Partenos med njegove najboljše stvaritve. Prijetno si je predstavljati skupino Grkov, ki so sedeli na neformalnem simpoziju leta 432 pr.n.št., pili vino poletnega predvečerja in razpravljali, kar so Grki običajno počeli, o tem, katero delo Phidias je najboljše. (Simpozij: sin -, & quottogether & quot + posis, & kvota pitja. & quot)

Danes Phidiasu ni mogoče z gotovostjo pripisati nobene skulpture iz stare Grčije. Pisateljica Edith Hamilton ugotavlja starodavno grško delo, & quot; Malo je ostalo od vsega tega bogastva velike umetnosti: skulpture, uničene in razdrobljene, so sesule zgradbe, slike so za vedno izginile, vse pa so izgubljene malo. & quot

Raztresene kose na Akropoli, za katere tradicionalno menijo, da jih je izdelal Phidias, so verjetno izdelali njegovo osebje in študenti. V petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja so arheologi, ki so izkopavali v Olimpiji, naredili čudovito odkritje - del starodavne skodelice za pitje s skrbnim napisom "Pripadam Phidiasu." Verjetno je to vse, kar ostane v njegovih rokah.

Približek Zeusovega svetišča je mogoče videti v deveti epizodi & quotI, Claudius. & Quot

Artemidin tempelj v Efezu
Morda je to stavbo mogoče uvrstiti s katedralo Chartres v Franciji na ožji seznam najlepših struktur v zgodovini, postavljenih v čast nebesom.

Artemido, hčerko Zeusa v grškem mitu, so častili prebivalci Efeza, bogatega in močnega grškega pristanišča v Mali Aziji (današnja Turčija). V šestem stoletju pred našim štetjem je kralj Croesus iz Lidije in mož, ki je svoje ime dal bogastvu, ki presega sanje o pohlepnosti, plačal za spomenik Artemidi. V četrtem stoletju pred našim štetjem je ogenj uničil ta prvi tempelj, obnovili so ga. Rimljani so stavbo preimenovali v svojo boginjo Diano. Identiteta arhitekta ni znana.

Tempelj je bil velik in pravokoten, z elegantnimi 60-metrskimi jonskimi stebri in dvoriščem, odprtim v nebo. Ko je pogledal od daleč, je struktura močno zasijala in se je zdelo pomirjujoče, ko smo se približali in vstopili. Učenjak Bluma L. Trell piše, da je bil to & kvotan izraz grške jonske duše & quot; pomešan s & quot; bližnji vzhodno orientalski duh & quot; Stavba je pritegnila filozofa Heraklita (c. spremeniti.

Goti so tempelj uničili leta 262 n. Ruševine so bile izkopane v 1800 -ih, vendar ni videti veliko.

Mavzolej v Halicarnassusu
Ko je perzijski vladar Mausolus umrl v četrtem stoletju pred našim štetjem v Mali Aziji, so ga pokopali v veličastnem grobu v mestu Halicarnassus. Mavzolov grob je postal znan kot mavzolej.

Grobnica je bila verjetno okoli 14 nadstropij, narejena iz belega marmorja in okrašena s kipom. Trajal je več kot 1800 let, vse do poznih 1400 -ih, ko so vitezi sv. Janeza prepoznali njegovo vrednost kot kamnolom in začeli vleči marmor. Mausolove kosti so izginile.

Mausolus svoje ime posodi kateri koli veliki grobnici. Najlepši mavzolej na svetu je Tadž Mahal v Agri v Indiji, ki so ga zgradili muslimani v 17. stoletju - morda najlepša stavba v zadnjih 500 letih. Drugi pomembni mavzoleji so Napoleonovi mavzoleji, v Parizu Ulysses S. Grant, v New Yorku Lenin, v moskovskem Ho Chi Minhu, v Hanoju in Veliki mavzolej v spominskem parku Forest Lawn v Glendaleu v Kaliforniji, kjer se je končno počival veliko hollywoodskih zvezdnikov.

Kolos na Rodosu
Kolos je bil kip Heliosa, grškega boga sonca, ki se nahaja na otoku Rodos v Egejskem morju.

Helios je bil bog zavetnik na Rodosu, ki so ga državljani zaprosili med svojim stanjem proti napadalcu Demetriju I. iz Makedonije leta 305 pr. Rodijci so zmagali v vojni in postavili Kolos v znak zahvale za njihovo rešitev in morda kot praznovanje njihove moči. Kipar Chares iz Lindosa je za delo uporabil bron, kamen in železo. Kip, ki se nahaja v bližini pristanišča, je varoval trgovske ladje, ki so prevažale žito, les, smolo, smolo, srebro, bron in drugo blago.

Kolos naj bi bil podoben Aleksandru Velikemu. To je bil največji kip svojega časa, visok okoli 110 čevljev. (Kip svobode je visok 152 čevljev, če ne štejemo osnove.) Po legendi je Kolos obdajal rodovsko pristanišče, med njegovimi nogami pa so prehajale ladje, vendar je to nemogoče – razpon takšnih nog bi bil četrt- miljo.

Potres okoli leta 226 pred našim štetjem je povzročil, da se je Kolos zlomil v kolenih, preročišče pa je rodijcem prepovedalo postavitev zamenjave. Rodos so leta 654 pred našim štetjem oropali islamski osvajalci, ostanki kipa pa so izginili.

Danes se "quotcolossus" lahko nanaša na kateri koli zelo velik kip, vključno s kipom svobode, na katerem je vpisana pesem z naslovom "Novi Kolos", ki jo je napisala Emma Lazarus leta 1883. Pesnik napačno razume velikost in vlogo Kolosa na Rodosu - ugotavlja ona neugodno njegovi & quotosvajajoči udi jahajo od zemlje do zemlje & quot; in ga kliče & quotbrazen. & quot; Kip svobode ima drugačno poslanstvo, piše Lazarus: & quot

Pharos v Aleksandriji
Mesto Aleksandrija v Egiptu je v četrtem stoletju pred našim štetjem ustanovil Aleksander Veliki za trgovino z žitom. Pristanišče je potrebovalo svetilnik, zato so Aleksandrijci približno 280 let pred našim štetjem zgradili čudovito 40-nadstropno zgradbo iz apnenca in granita, ki so jo poimenovali "Pharos" po majhnem otoku, na katerem je stala. Moški, ki je to plačal, je bil morda Sostrat iz Knida, bogat trgovec, ki se je zanimal za varen prehod svojih plovil. Ime arhitekta ni znano.

Pharos je imel svetilnik, vir te svetlobe pa je bil ogenj na dnu zgradbe ali morda sončni žarki ali oboje, okrepljeno in odsevano z velikimi ogledali na vrhu strukture. Ta bronasta ogledala so predniki steklenih ogledal v današnjih teleskopih. Egipčanski delavci, ki so ustvarili ogledala Pharos, so bili zagotovo med najbolj cenjenimi obrtniki v mestu, kar si jih lahko predstavljamo ali njihove sužnje, ki vsako uro brusijo ogromne gladke diske.

Potresi so skozi stoletja poškodovali Pharos, do leta 1400 pa je bila struktura ruševina. Leta 1995 je arheološka ekipa odkrila nekaj ostankov (glej & quot; Zakladi potopljenega mesta & quot; izdelali sta Nova in PBS). Beseda "quotpharos" živi kot sinonim (čeprav se le redko uporablja) za svetilnik ali vodilno luč.


Viseči babilonski vrtovi

Ilustracija, ki prikazuje babilonske viseče vrtove.

Babilonci, za katere trdijo, da so jih zgradili v bližini reke Evfrat v današnjem Iraku, so imeli viseči babilonski vrtovi zunanje stene, dolge 56 milj, debele 80 čevljev in visoke 320 čevljev, čeprav arheološke najdbe tega nikoli niso potrdile. .Samo vzdrževanje bi bilo neverjetno, saj bi vključevalo namakalni sistem, sestavljen iz črpalke, vodnega kolesa in cistern, da bi vodo iz reke dvignili v zrak.

Zgrajen leta 600 pr. Ker za te ogromne vrtove ni znana določena lokacija, sodobni znanstveniki niso prepričani, ali so res obstajali.


Sedem čudes starega sveta

Od piramid do templjev so naši predniki znali narediti stvari.

Pred več kot 2000 leti so popotniki pisali o neverjetnih znamenitostih, ki so jih videli na svojih potovanjih. Sčasoma je sedem teh krajev vstopilo v zgodovino kot "čudeži starodavnega sveta". Preverite jih tukaj.

Piramide v Gizi

Ogromne grobnice egipčanskih faraonov, piramide, so edino starodavno čudo, ki stoji še danes. Najvišja od treh se imenuje Velika piramida.

Viseči babilonski vrtovi

Legenda pravi, da je bil ta vrtni raj zasajen na umetni gori in zgrajen, da bi ugajal ženi kralja Nebukadnezarja II., Vendar mnogi strokovnjaki pravijo, da v resnici nikoli ni obstajal.

Artemidin tempelj

Ta tempelj, zgrajen v čast Artemidi, grški boginji lova, naj bi hranil številna umetniška dela.

Kip Zeusa

Ta 40-metrski (12-metrski) kip je upodobil kralja grških bogov.

Mavzolej v Halicarnassusu

Ta dovršena grobnica je bila zgrajena za kralja Mavzola in je občudovala zaradi svoje arhitekturne lepote in sijaja.

Kolos z Rodosa

Kip s 33 metri visok 110 čevljev je počastil grškega boga sonca Heliosa.

Aleksandrijski svetilnik

Prvi svetilnik na svetu, ki že več kot 1500 let stoji nad sredozemsko obalo, je z ogledali odbijal sončno svetlobo milj do morja.

Slike (od zgoraj navzdol): WITR, iStockphoto corbis MARY EVANS knjižnico slik, Alamy slike SIPLEY, CLASSICSTOCK, Getty Images DE AGOSTINI knjižnico slik, Getty Images SIPLEY, CLASSICSTOCK, Getty Images DEA knjižnico slik, Getty Images


Vpliv

Umetnost in arhitektura

Sedem čudes na Antipaterjevem seznamu je dobilo pohvale za svoje pomembne lastnosti, od superlativov najvišjih ali največjih svojih vrst, do umetnosti, s katero so bili usmrčeni. Njihove arhitekturne in umetniške značilnosti so posnemali po vsem helenističnem svetu in širše.

Grški vpliv v rimski kulturi in oživitev grško-rimskih umetniških stilov v času renesanse sta ujela domišljijo evropskih umetnikov in popotnikov. [15] Poslikave in skulpture, ki namigujejo na Antipaterjev seznam, so nastale, pustolovci pa so se zbrali na dejanskih mestih, da bi bili osebno priča čudežem. Legende so krožile, da bi dodatno dopolnile presežke čudes.

Sodobni seznami

Od Antipaterjevih čudes se je do danes ohranila le Velika piramida v Gizi. Njegova briljantna bela kamnita obloga je ostala nedotaknjena do okoli leta 1300 našega štetja, ko so lokalne skupnosti odstranile večino kamnitih zidov za gradbeni material. Obstoj visečih vrtov ni dokazan, čeprav obstaja veliko teorij. [16] Zapisi in arheologija potrjujejo obstoj drugih petih čudes. Artemidin tempelj in kip Zeusa je uničil požar, Aleksandrijski svetilnik, Kolos in grob Mausolusa pa potresi. Med ohranjenimi artefakti so skulpture iz groba Mausolus in Artemidinega templja v Britanskem muzeju v Londonu.

Kljub temu se je seznam sedmih najbolj čudovitih arhitekturnih in umetniških človeških dosežkov nadaljeval tudi od antične Grčije do rimskega cesarstva, srednjega veka, renesanse in moderne dobe. Rimski pesnik Martial in krščanski škof Gregory iz Toursa sta imela svoje različice. [1] Odražajoč vzpon krščanstva ter dejavnik časa, narave in človekove roke, ki je premagal sedem Antipaterjevih čudes, so se na tem seznamu začela pojavljati rimska in krščanska mesta, vključno s Kolosejem, Noetovo barko in Salomonovim templjem. [1] [3] V 6. stoletju je sveti Gregor iz Turske sestavil seznam sedmih čudes: seznam [17] je vseboval Salomonov tempelj, Aleksandrijski Pharos in Noetovo skrinjo.

Sodobni zgodovinarji, ki so delali na predpostavki, da je bil prvotni seznam sedmih starodavnih čudes omejen po svojem geografskem obsegu, so imeli tudi svoje različice, ki so zajemale spletna mesta izven helenističnega področja - od sedmih čudes Starodavni svet do sedmih čudes Svet. Dejansko je oznaka "sedem čudes" med mednarodnimi organizacijami, publikacijami in posamezniki ustvarila nešteto različic, ki temeljijo na različnih temah - naravnih delih, inženirskih mojstrovinah, konstrukcijah srednjega veka itd. Njegov namen se je spremenil tudi iz preprostega potovalnega vodnika ali zbirko radovednih krajev, na sezname mest, ki jih je treba braniti ali ohraniti.


Sedem čudes starega sveta: zgodovina in rekonstrukcije

Zasluge: JR. Casals

Uvod -

Z zgodovinskega vidika seznam sedmih čudes starega sveta prihaja iz nepopolnega rokopisa, znanega kot Sedem znamenitosti sveta (ki je mimogrede naštelo le šest spomenikov), ki jih je verjetno okoli leta 225 pr. Besedilo omenja theamata (približno "stvari, ki jih je treba videti" v grščini) sveta, kar je v bistvu pomenilo neverjetne znamenitosti tistega časa. Zanimivo je, da so bili tudi drugi starodavni pisatelji, ki so se sklicevali ali celo naredili lastne sezname "znamenitosti za ogled", med njimi Herodot, Kalimah iz Cirene, Diodorus Siculus in Antipater iz Sidona.

V ta namen je bil po Herodotu egipčanski labirint vreden vključitve kot čudež pred piramide. Antipater pa je namesto aleksandrijskega svetilnika vključil babilonske zidove. Vendar bomo v tem članku obravnavali le 'tradicionalnih' sedem čudes starega sveta - kot jih je večinoma sestavil Philo. Zato se brez odlašanja poglejmo v fascinantno zgodovino in vizualne rekonstrukcije (posredovane s podobami in animacijami) teh neverjetnih sedem čudes starodavnega sveta.

1) Velika piramida v Gizi (okoli 2560 pr. N. Št.) -

Velika piramida v Gizi iz starodavnega Egipta je od nas 'smrtnikov' vedno zahtevala strahospoštovanje in priznanje, in to upravičeno. Neverjeten arhitekturni primerek je bil zgrajen okoli leta 2560 pred našim štetjem in je rekord za najvišjo zgradbo na svetu držal neverjetnih 3800 let s svojo takrat impresivno višino 481 ft (146,5 m). Na splošno velja, da je bil G zgrajen kot mrliški spomenik Khufuju (oz Cheops v grščini), ki je bil drugi faraon iz četrte dinastije, velikanska struktura ni le najstarejša, ampak ironično tudi edini ohranjeni spomenik iz sedmih čudes starodavnega sveta. Kar zadeva njeno arhitekturno zgodovino, je bila Velika piramida verjetno dokončana v 20 letih in je bila kot taka del kompleksa nekropole Khufu, ki so ga sestavljali tudi veliki templji in manjše piramide. Kasneje se je kompleks razširil z vključitvijo dveh drugih velikih piramid Khufujevih naslednikov - Khafreja in Menkaureja, razširjen prostorski obseg pa je zdaj znan kot piramidni kompleks Giza (ki je imel ogromno stensko ograjo, ki je bila znana kot stena Vrane).

As for the mind-boggling figures associated with the Great Pyramid itself, this first among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World rises to a height of around 455 ft – the tad reduced scale being due to soil erosion and the loss of the pyramidion, which was the uppermost capstone of the structure. In spite of the slight reduction in dimensions, the monumental giant has a base area of around 570,000 sq ft (equivalent to almost 10 American football fields) and a gargantuan volume of 88 million cubic ft (or 2.5 million cubic m) that accounts for an extraordinary 5.9 million tons of mass. This massive scope was achieved by the use of a whopping 2.3 million stone blocks (ranging from 2 to 30 tons) – that comes to an average of 800 tons of stones being installed each day, with 12 stones being precisely placed every hour! Few of these stones (especially, the ones used in the inner chambers) weigh more than 50 tons, and yet they were transported to the site from Aswan, which over 500 miles away.

In a short film made by the Smithsonian Channel, Jacquelyn Williamson, a Harvard University Egyptologist, gives us details on how the ancient craftsmen and artisans carved and finished the humongous blocks of limestone that are also known as ‘casing stones’ for the Great Pyramid of Giza. These slanting yet flat-topped blocks were primarily used for the external facades of the monumental structure. And, according to the documentary, the stone surfaces were almost polished to perfection with a range of abrasives like sandstone, brick, and fine sand – in a process not only requiring time and effort but also refined skills of craftsmanship. Credit: Jean-Philippe Laurent

The end result of such high levels of polishing yielded immaculately smooth surfaces that were incredibly shiny beyond reckoning. And, considering that there were limited pollution and smog circa 2500 BC (as opposed to our contemporary times), the Great Pyramid of Giza must have been an otherworldly magnificent spectacle during the time of its completion – with ethereal, glass-like facades basking in the glory of the effulgent sun. Quite poetically and rather aptly, the Ancient Egyptians called the Great Pyramid of Giza by the name of ‘Ikhet‘, which simply translates to ‘Glorious Light’.

2) Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (circa 7th century BC) –

Source: Wilstar

Possibly the second oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in terms of origin, the Temple of Artemis was initially established as a sanctuary during the Bronze Age, in what is now İzmir Province, Turkey. The sanctuary was destroyed by a flood (some time in 7th century BC) and its remnants were rebuilt into a massive temple by circa 550 BC, under the directions of the Cretan architect Chersiphron of Knossos and his son Metagenes (according to Strabo). This temple, however, was intentionally set to fire in an act of arson.

However, the structure was rebuilt for the second time, and this magnificent iteration was counted among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In the words of Antipater of Sidon, the 2nd century BC Greek poet, who is also considered as one of the compilers of the list of ancient wonders –

I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun, and the huge labor of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, “Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand.

Credit: Rocío Espín Piñar

The Ionic Temple of Artemis possibly survived until the 3rd century AD and was heavily damaged during the disastrous Gothic invasion. The roving Goths crossed Anatolia and were faced by only 7,000 Greek defenders under Roman rule at the famed narrow pass of Thermopylae (not to be confused with the earlier Battle of Thermopylae that pitted the Greeks against the Persians), though the outcome of this encounter is lost to the rigors of history. As for the Temple of Artemis, remarkably enough, it was once again rebuilt in the early 5th century but was ultimately destroyed by a band of Christians.

3) Hanging Gardens of Babylon (possibly circa 7th – 6th century BC) –

Credit: MondoWorks

Myth, history, and magnificence – the Hanging Gardens of Babylon tread the fine line between all these avenues to emerge as one of Herodotus’ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. And while the name itself evokes a reverie of a colossal construction with lush greenery complemented by the kaleidoscopic bevy of flowers and herbs, unfortunately, there is very little archaeological evidence to support the presumed massive scale of these ‘hanging’ gardens from ancient Mesopotamia.

Given the nigh-mythical status of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, we hark back to one particular legend that talks about how Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar I may have constructed the gardens in 6th century BC, as a gift to his queen Amytis. Beyond the gargantuan nature of this ‘gift, it was the thought that counted – since Amytis came from Media, the area roughly corresponding to the northwestern part of present-day Iran, and she was apparently homesick for the verdant valleys and multifarious fauna of her native land. The king thus came up with the solution of creating a blooming ‘wonder’ for his wife in the very heartland of Mesopotamia – Babylon. Credit: JR. Casals

Now from the historical angle, some of these legends were first described by Berossus (apparently in his book Babyloniaca ), a Chaldaean priest who lived in the late 4th century BC. Subsequently, many ancient Greek authors also went on to provide written descriptions of this ancient wonder sometimes quoting Berossus’ work and at other times paraphrasing other ancient sources. For example, Diodorus Siculus (the author of the famed Bibliotheca historica ) possibly consulted the 4th century BC texts of Ctesias of Cnidus, and then made this description in 1st century BC –

There was also, beside the acropolis, the Hanging Garden, as it is called, which was built, not by Semiramis, but by a later Syrian king to please one of his concubines for she, they say, being a Persian by race and longing for the meadows of her mountains, asked the king to imitate, through the artifice of a planted garden, the distinctive landscape of Persia. The park extended four plethra on each side, and since the approach to the garden sloped like a hillside and the several parts of the structure rose from one another tier on tier, the appearance of the whole resembled that of a theater. When the ascending terraces had been built, there had been constructed beneath them galleries which carried the entire weight of the planted garden and rose little by little one above the other along the approach and the uppermost gallery, which was fifty cubits high, bore the highest surface of the park, which was made level with the circuit wall of the battlements of the city.

Furthermore, the walls, which had been constructed at great expense, were twenty-two feet thick, while the passageway between each two walls was ten feet wide. The roof above these beams had first a layer of reeds laid in great quantities of bitumen, over this two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, and as a third layer of covering of lead, to the end that the moisture from the soil might not penetrate beneath. On all this again earth had been piled to a depth sufficient for the roots of the largest trees and the ground, when leveled off, was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great size or other charms, could give pleasure to the beholder. And since the galleries, each projecting beyond another, all received the light, they contained many royal lodgings of every description and there was one gallery which contained openings leading from the topmost surface and machines for supplying the gardens with water, the machines raising the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it being done. Now this park, as I have said, was a later construction.

Keeping these constructional conjectures aside, archaeologists have actually come across a palatial complex inside Babylon that had its fair share of vaults and wells. But the location of this seemingly monumental structure is not close to the banks of the Euphrates, which rather contradicts the descriptions of ancient Greek authors. On the other hand, researchers have also discovered ruins of 82-ft wide wall overlays by the banks of the river, which alludes to the possibility of a substantially large structure that was built during the ancient times. Unfortunately, in any case, none of these ruins directly point to the actual existence of the incredible Hanging Gardens of Babylon – the most enigmatic of all the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

4) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (circa 435 BC) –

Source: OrangeSmile

Awe-inspiring in its collective visual ‘power’, as opposed to just the size, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, was a testament of the incredible sculptural prowess of the ancient Greeks. Built under the supervision of master sculptor and architect Phidias, the very same who previously oversaw the construction of the imposing statue of Athena inside the Parthenon, the seated Statue of Zeus was possibly finished by circa 435 BC, inside the massive temple perimeters at the sanctuary of Olympia.

The magnificent piece of art, counted among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was around 40 ft tall and its chryselephantine form (composed of gold and ivory panels laid over a wooden core) was bedecked with a bevy of precious materials, including silver, ebony, copper, glass, enamel, and an assortment of jewels. Unsurprisingly, the temple structure itself matched the ostentatious nature of the statue, with the precinct being the largest Greek temple at the time, measuring 210 x 91 ft in the area with facades comprising a total of 78 massive Doric columns. Source: UN Museum / Copyright: Lee Krystek

Interestingly enough, this incredible architectural endeavor was undertaken to elevate the status of Olympia and its sacred games, especially to counter the growing influence of rival games being held at other places in ancient Greece, like Delphi and Corinth. To that end, the dedication of the precinct and the statue to Zeus was purely intentional, since the deity was regarded as the King of the Greek Gods, who embodied the various aspects of the sky, weather, law and order, destiny and fate, and kingship.

However, by circa 5th century AD, the temple fell into disuse – coinciding with the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire that overtook the Classical pagan religions. The fate of the statue at this time is not entirely known, although some sources suggest that it was taken to Constantinople. Unfortunately, the chryselephantine Zeus possibly didn’t survive the great fire at the Palace of Lausus in circa 475 AD.

5) Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (circa 353 BC) –

Source: Wilstar

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (or Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ in Greek) was a grandiosely constructed tomb for Mausolus and his wife Artemisia II of Caria, between 353 and 350 BC, at what is now present-day Bodrum in Turkey. Mausolus, while himself being a native of Caria, was a satrap (governor) of the Persian Empire. He was also a great admirer of the Greek culture – so much so that the entire Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was designed by Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene, while also boasting sculptural reliefs from other eminent ancient Greek artists.

To that end, the project was undertaken under the patronage of Mausolus’ heartbroken wife (and sister) Artemisia after the satrap’s death, thus in many ways mirrors the story of Shah Jahan and Taj Mahal – which incidentally is counted among the new seven wonders of the world. Reverting to the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the soaring edifice was guarded by a stone enclosure and the entire complex sat atop a platform overlooking the city.

In essence, it was the magnificence of the finished structure (which rose to over 148 ft) that prompted Antipater of Sidon to designate it as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Unfortunately enough, this breathtaking architectural specimen was the last of the six destroyed ancient wonders which met its ravaged fate brought on by successive earthquakes from 12th to 15th centuries. And in an interesting etymological note, the very word ‘mausoleum’ is derived from this ancient wonder dedicated to the Anatolian ruler Mausolus.

6) The Lighthouse of Alexandria (circa 280 BC) –

Screenshot of ancient Alexandria (reconstruction) from Assassins Creed: Origins by Ubisoft Studios

One of the rare instances of Greek architecture that went beyond human scale to ‘godly’ dimensions, the Lighthouse of Alexandria (also known as the Pharos of Alexandria) constructed by the Ptolemaic Kingdom (possibly by Ptolemy I Soter, circa 280 BC), may have been the tallest structure in the ancient world, with some accounts mentioning its height to soar up to an incredible 492 ft. Unfortunately, since the building is not extant, we have to revert to its lowest possible height in accordance with other literary sources – which was still impressive at 377 ft (or 115 m).

As Judith McKenzie, from Faculty of Oriental Studies in the University of Oxford, made it clear –

The Arab descriptions of the lighthouse are remarkably consistent, although it was repaired several times especially after earthquake damage. The height they give varies only fifteen per cent from c 103 to 118 m [338 to 387 ft], on a base c. 30 by 30 m [98 by 98 ft] square…the Arab authors indicate a tower with three tapering tiers, which they describe as square, octagonal and circular, with a substantial ramp.

Now in terms of design, the Lighthouse of Alexandria built from light-hued stone blocks was vertically divided into three components – the lowermost (and broadest) square section with four huge facades, the thinner middle section with an octagonal plan, and the upper-most slimmest section with a circular plan. The functionality of the enormous structure was related to this upper level, with a mirror being installed atop it that reflected sunlight during the daytime, while a fire was lit during the night. Copyright: Ubisoft Entertainment SA

And given the sheer volume of the facades, the arranged stone-blocks of the ancient lighthouse were supposedly reinforced with molten lead so as to withstand the force from the incoming sea waves. Given such advanced engineering credentials, it comes as no surprise that the Lighthouse of Alexandria was considered among one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

7) Colossus of Rhodes (circa 280 BC) –

Source: GreekReporter

The Colossus of Rhodes was originally a massive statue of the Greek god Helios, erected possibly by the harbor of ancient Rhodes (on the island which bears the same name in our modern times). It probably rose to a height of around 109 ft (or 70 cubits, 33 m) and was made by the local sculptor Chares of Lindos in circa 280 BC to commemorate the victory of Rhodes over forces of Cyprus that besieged the city in 305 BC. Interestingly enough, contemporary sources talked about how much of the bronze and iron used for the colossal statue was actually repurposed from the abandoned siege tower and weapons left behind by the unsuccessful Cypriot army.

A poem from the Greek Anthology reads –

O you, O Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching to Olympus, when they had pacified the waves of war and crowned their city with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas but also on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom and independence. For to the descendants of Herakles belongs dominion over sea and land.

Vir: Pinterest

On an unfortunate note, while the Colossus of Rhodes was counted among the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (in terms of construction), the statue only stood for a period of 54 years – thus becoming the first to be destroyed. It was heavily damaged, along with various sections of the harbor, when the city was hit by an earthquake in 226 BC. And while the Ptolemaic ruler offered to rebuild the structure (since Rhodes was under the control of the Ptolemaic Kingdom), the native Rhodians declined since they perceived the calamity as a form of divine punishment. There is also an anecdote (from The Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor – an Eastern Roman monk ) about how the Arabs, on briefly taking control of Rhodes in 653 AD, dismantled the remnants of the brass statue and transported the sections on 900 camels, which were to be made into coins.

*Note – The article was updated on 17th April, 2020.

Video Credits Pertaining to the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World:

Great Pyramid at Giza – Danila Loginov

Hanging Gardens of Babylon – omixmax (Sourced from Lumion 3D)

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus – xtheatroN (Sourced from Total War: Rome 2)

Lighthouse of Alexandria – Ancient Vine

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The history behind the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

It is not known with certainty who made the first selection of the monuments, but it is suspected that it was the poet Callimachus of Cyrene, author of the book, “A Collection of Wonders around the World.”

Antipater of Sidon, currently considered as the principal source, leaves us a description of these emblematic places:

I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Sun, and the huge labor of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, ‘Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand.’

We also find Gregory of Nazianzus, the Theologian, who in his treatise “Seven spectacles of the world” describes:

The Egyptian Thebes, with its multiple temples the walls of Babylon, which protected a coveted city, the sepulcher of Mausolus the collection of pyramids, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Capitol of Rome and the monument of Adrian.

During the Middle Ages we find texts which mentioned thirty wonders, like the text which is read in the Codex Vaticanus 989 (from the year 1300). In the Renaissance, the classical influence sustained the number seven, defended by Angelo Poliziano in the 15th Century.

In the 19th Century a collection of books was published in France, which received the name of “Library of wonders,” among which “Wonders of architecture” (1865) by André Lefèvre stands out, which included Celtic, Mycenaean, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, and Indian buildings: from the monoliths of Carnac, through the Lion Gate or Thebes, to the temples of Shiva.


Vsebina

The Greek conquest of much of the western world in the 4th century BC gave Hellenistic travellers access to the civilizations of the Egyptians, Persians, and Babylonians. [1] Impressed and captivated by the landmarks and marvels of the various lands, these travellers began to list what they saw to remember them. [2] [3]

Instead of "wonders", the ancient Greeks spoke of "theamata" (θεάματα), which means "sights", in other words "things to be seen" (Τὰ ἑπτὰ θεάματα τῆς οἰκουμένης [γῆς] Tà heptà theámata tēs oikoumenēs [gēs]). Later, the word for "wonder" ("thaumata" θαύματα, "wonders") was used. [4] Hence, the list was meant to be the Ancient World's counterpart of a travel guidebook. [1]

The first reference to a list of seven such monuments was given by Diodorus Siculus. [5] [6] The epigrammist Antipater of Sidon, [7] who lived around or before 100 BC, [8] gave a list of seven "wonders", including six of the present list (substituting the walls of Babylon for the Lighthouse of Alexandria): [9]

I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon along which chariots may race, and on the Zeus by the banks of the Alpheus, I have seen the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, and the gigantic tomb of Mausolus but when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the others were placed in the shade, for the sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside Olympus.

Another 2nd century BC writer, who, perhaps dubiously, identified himself as Philo of Byzantium, wrote a short account entitled The Seven Sights of the World. [3] The surviving manuscript is incomplete, missing its latter pages, but from the text of the preamble we can conclude that the list of seven sights exactly matches Antipater's (the preamble mentions the location Halicarnassus, but the pages describing the seventh wonder, presumably the Mausoleum, are missing). [10]

The Colossus of Rhodes was the last of the seven to be completed, after 280 BC, and the first to be destroyed, by an earthquake in 226/225 BC. As such, all seven wonders existed at the same time for a period of less than 60 years.

The list covered only the sculptural and architectural monuments of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, [11] which then comprised the known world for the Greeks. Hence, extant sites beyond this realm were not considered as part of contemporary accounts. [1]

The primary accounts, coming from Hellenistic writers, also heavily influenced the places included in the wonders list. Five of the seven entries are a celebration of Greek accomplishments in the arts and architecture (the exceptions being the Pyramids of Giza and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon).

Arts and architecture

The seven wonders on Antipater's list won praises for their notable features, ranging from superlatives of the highest or largest of their types, to the artistry with which they were executed. Their architectural and artistic features were imitated throughout the Hellenistic world and beyond.

The Greek influence in Roman culture, and the revival of Greco-Roman artistic styles during the Renaissance caught the imagination of European artists and travellers. [16] Paintings and sculptures alluding to Antipater's list were made, while significant numbers of adventurers travelled to the actual sites to personally witness the wonders. Legends circulated to further complement the superlatives of the wonders.

Modern lists

Of Antipater's wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Its brilliant white stone facing had survived intact until around 1300 AD, when local communities removed most of the stonework for building materials. The existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been proven, though theories abound. [17] Records and archaeology confirm the existence of the other five wonders. The Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Colossus, and tomb of Mausolus were destroyed by earthquakes. Among the surviving artefacts are sculptures from the tomb of Mausolus and the Temple of Artemis, currently kept in the British Museum in London.

The listing of seven of the most marvellous architectural and artistic human achievements continued beyond the Ancient Greek times to the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and to the modern age. The Roman poet Martial and the Christian bishop Gregory of Tours had their versions. [1] Reflecting the rise of Christianity and the factor of time, nature and the hand of man overcoming Antipater's seven wonders, Roman and Christian sites began to figure on the list, including the Colosseum, Noah's Ark and Solomon's Temple. [1] [3] In the 6th century, a list of seven wonders was compiled by St. Gregory of Tours: the list [18] included the Temple of Solomon, the Pharos of Alexandria and Noah's Ark.

Modern historians, working on the premise that the original Seven Ancient Wonders List was limited in its geographic scope, also had their versions to encompass sites beyond the Hellenistic realm—from the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World to the Seven Wonders of the Svet. The "seven wonders" label has spawned innumerable versions among international organizations, publications and individuals based on different themes—works of nature, engineering masterpieces, constructions of the Middle Ages, etc. Its purpose has also changed from just a simple travel guidebook or a compendium of curious places to a list of sites to defend or preserve.


The lighthouse of Alexandria

Built during the 3rd century BC under Ptolemy I and inaugurated under the son of Ptolemy II, the lighthouse of Alexandria was described by many travelers until the 14th century, when it was destroyed by a more violent earthquake than the others . It was long attributed to the architect Sostrate of Cnidus, but nowadays it seems that this person, very rich and close to the king, was only the sponsor of the summit statue. It is actually the only name found on the vestiges of the lighthouse, which is why it is so often associated with this monument.

Many different stories but the descriptions of the monument are relatively identical, especially for its general form. We can therefore estimate that it resembles this description, namely: From a height of more than 130m, it consisted of 3 perfectly distinct parts. The lower part was square, the second octagonal, and the third, much shorter, cylindrical. At the top was a statue whose representation is still subject to discussion today.

Alexandria was founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great during his conquest of the Persian Empire. In Egypt he was welcomed as a liberator. At the time of his death, in 323 BC, he was one of his generals, Ptolemy, who took the office of satrap of Egypt (a satrap, a governor), but soon succeeded in taking the king's crown. He is the founder of the Lagide (or Ptolemaic) dynasty which will end in -30 under Cleopatra during the conquest of Egypt by the Roman Emperor Octave-Auguste. During these three centuries Alexandria was the most important city in the Hellenistic world, from the commercial, intellectual and artistic point of view.

There were several underwater excavation campaigns on the site. The first of these took place in 1968 by the British archaeologist Honor Frost, and they enabled us to judge the archaeological interest of the site. Others took place but did not go on until 1994 when Mr Jean-Yves Empereur took over the excavations carried out under the aegis of the French Institute of Eastern Archeology and under the auspices of the Center d'études alexandrines which he directed. Various excavation campaigns made it possible to extract important archaeological material from the waters, including a very beautiful statue of Ptolemy, known as the Colossus of Ptolemy.


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Carrie is the owner & operator of Homeschool Giveaways. She has been homeschooling for over a decade and has successfully graduated her first homeschooler. She has two girls and works side by side at home with her awesome husband. She has been saved by grace, fails daily, but continues to strive toward the prize of the high calling of being a daughter of the Most High God.


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