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Fokker M.16

Fokker M.16


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Fokker M.16

Fokker M.16 je bil eden od serije dvokrilcev, ki jih je zasnoval Anthony Fokker, da bi našel zamenjavo za svoja uspešna enokrilna letala. Eno različico letala so naročili Avstro-Ogrski, vendar je bilo naročilo preklicano po nesreči pri testiranju.

M.16 je bil izdelan v dveh različicah. Oba sta poganjala vodno hlajena mercedesova motorja in sta uporabljala isto osnovno konfiguracijo. To je predstavljalo dve krili zelo podobnih velikosti. Krila so bila pritrjena na zgornji in spodnji del trupa trupa, kar pomeni, da sta bili pilotski kabini poravnani z zgornjim krilom. Pilotova glava in ramena so tako štrlela nad krilo, kar mu daje dobro raven in navzgor vidljivost, vendar slabo vidljivost navzdol in naprej, ki jo blokirajo krila in motor.

M.16E je bila prva dokončana različica, ki je začela testirati pozimi 1915-1916. Šlo je za enoprostorni dvosedežni dvokrilni motor z motorjem Mercedes D.I s 100 KM. Odlikoval je krmilo in repno ploskev v obliki vejice, preprosto podvozje v obliki črke V in krmilo za upogibanje kril. Oborožen je bil z enim LMG 08/15. Na preskusih se je izkazalo, da nima dovolj moči, in ga nemška vojska ni sprejela.

M.16Z je bil dvosedežni dvokrilni dvokrilni motor, ki ga je poganjal motor Mercedes D.III s 160 KM. Tako je imel daljša krila kot M.16E. Krmilo v obliki vejice je zamenjal pravokotni model. Ponovno se je izkazalo, da nima dovolj moči in da nemško vojsko ni zanimalo.

Bolj so se zanimali Avstro-Ogrski. Fokkerju so priskrbeli vodno hlajen motor 160 KM Austro-Daimlerja in naročili prototip. Za proizvodna letala je bilo izdano začasno naročilo, ki pa je bilo preklicano, potem ko je drugi prototip, ki ga je lokalno izdelal Aviatik, strmoglavil med preskusi. Namesto tega so Avstrijci naročili številne Fokker M.17E pod oznako B.II.

Knjige o prvi svetovni vojni | Predmetno kazalo: prva svetovna vojna


Fokker M.16

The Fokker M.16 je bil polno vrzel (imel je globok trup, ki je v celoti zapolnil medletalsko vrzel), enomotorno dvosedežno lovsko/izvidniško letalo, razvito leta 1915. Imel je eno samo vodno hlajeno Austro-Daimler s 149 kW (200 KM) motor. Oborožen je bil z dvema mitraljezoma 7,92 mm (0,312 palca).

Fokker M.16
Vloga Borec
Proizvajalec Fokker
Uvod 1915

M.16E je bil prototip za M.16Z, ki je imel motor Austro-Daimler ali 119 kW (160 KM) Mercedes.

M.16E je služil v avstro-ogrski vojski kot Fokker B.III.

Ta članek o letalu iz leta 1910 je škrbina. Wikipediji lahko pomagate tako, da jo razširite.


Gradbeništvo [uredi | uredi vir]

Trup je preprosto sestavljen iz dveh lesenih nosilcev s prečnimi nosilci, na katerih sedi pilot in na katerih je spredaj nameščen štirivaljni motor z vodnim hlajenjem Argus. Radiatorji so nameščeni na strani trupa. Krila in rep so sestavljeni iz dveh jeklenih cevi z bambusovimi rebri. Podvozje je izdelano tudi iz jeklenih cevi. Celotna konstrukcija je pritrjena z jekleno žico. Kasnejše različice imajo bolj poenostavljen trup.


Rojstni dnevi v zgodovini

    Anton Melik, slovenski geograf († 1966) Mosa Pijade, Jugoslavija, poslanec (komunist) Henny Porten, zvezda tihega zaslona (Prevara), rojen v Magdeburgu, Nemčija Sandor Rado, madžarsko/ameriški psihoanalitik Karel Čapek, češki pisatelj, dramatik in kritik (RUR) je skoval besedo & quotrobot & quot, rojen v Malé Svatoňovice, Madžarska († 1938) Kurt Tucholsky, nemški novinar/pisatelj (Panther Tiger & amp Co) Grigory Landsberg, sovjetski fizik, rojen v Vologdi, Rusija († 1957) Oswald de Andrade, brazilski avtor (eden iz modernistične skupine petih), rojen v Sao Paulu, Brazilija († 1954) Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, župnik in vzgojitelj, rojen v Parizu, Tennessee († 1976) Jüri Uluots, estonski premier († 1945) Fred M. Vinson, ameriški demokratski politik, minister za finance ZDA (1945–46) in 13. vrhovni sodnik vrhovnega sodišča ZDA (1946–53), rojen v Louisi v Kentuckyju († 1953) Robert Stroud, Ameriški obsojenec, & quotBirdman of Alcatraz & quot, rojen v Seattlu Washington († 1963) Adolf Bach, nemški l anguage/sociolog (Deutsche Namenkunde) Jean J M de Lattre de Tassigny, francoski gen (Indo-Kitajska) Claro Mayo Recto, filipinski nacionalist/nasprotnik ameriškega kolonializma Jacobus J P Oud, nizozemski arhitekt/soustanovitelj (Stijl)

Boris Pasternak

10. februar Boris Pasternak, ruski pisatelj in pesnik (doktor Živago, Nobel 1958), rojen v Moskvi, Rusija († 1960)

    Fanny Kaplan, neuspešna morilka Vladimirja Lenina († 1918) Jan de Vries, nizozemski učenjak germanskega jezikoslovja in germanske mitologije, rojen v Amsterdamu († 1964) David Drummond, avstralski politik († 1965) Nina Hamnett, valižanska umetnica in amp pisatelj, rojen v Tenbyju, Pembrokeshire, Wales (um. 1956) Robert Ley, nacistični politik. Naredil samomor 1945. Lauri SA Haarla, finski (scenski) pisatelj (Juudas, Sukeltaja) Jan Duiker, nizozemski arhitekt (Zonnestral) Norman Bethune, kanadski zdravnik, komunist in humanist (španska državljanska vojna, druga kitajsko-japonska vojna), rojen v Gravenhurstu , Ontario († 1939) Fernand Ansseau, belgijski operater/teorija (Orfeo) Oswald von Nell-Breuning, nemški teolog in filozof, rojen v Trierju, Nemčija († 1991)

Vyacheslav Molotov

9. marec Vyacheslav Molotov [Skryabin], ruski politik (sovjetski minister za zunanje zadeve, 1939-49, 1953-6), rojen v Kukarki, Ruski imperij († 1986)

    Vannevar Bush, razvit prvi elektronski analogni računalnik A Evert Taube, švedski pisatelj/trubadur William Dudley Pelley, ameriški vodja Srebrne legije († 1965) Gerardus van der Leeuw, nizozemski zgodovinar religije/minister za izobraževanje John Rock, ameriški porodničar in ginekolog ki je soustvaril prvo kontracepcijsko tableto, rojen v Marlboroughu v Massachusettsu († 1984) Marten Baersma [MH Bottema], frizanski avtor (De ljochte kimen) Jozef Arras, flamski pisatelj, rojen v Lierju († 1919) Harold Spencer Jones, angleški astronom in deseti angleški kraljevi astronom, katerega delo je pripeljalo do natančnejše določitve razdalje med Zemljo in Soncem, rojen v Londonu († 1960) William Lawrence Bragg, angleški fizik, Nobelov nagrajenec († 1971) Andre L Danjon, francoski astronom Anthony Fokker, nizozemski letalski pionir in proizvajalec letal (enokrilna letala Eindecker, trikrilna letala Fokker) Marjory Stoneman Douglas, okoljevarstvenica (1. dama Everglades) Donna Rachele Mussolini, žena italijanskega diktatorja Benita Mussolinija, rojenega v Predappio, Romagna, Kraljevina Italija (um. 1979) Frank Murphy, ameriški politik in 56. generalni državni tožilec Združenih držav, rojen v Harbour Beachu v Michiganu († 1949) Lou Bandy [Lodewijk Ferdinand Dieben], nizozemski revist (Look for the Sun), rojen v Haagu na Nizozemskem († 1959) Maurice Duplessis, 16. premier Quebeca, rojen v Trois-Rivièresu v Quebecu v Kanadi († 1959) EE Smith, ameriški inženir hrane in avtor znanstvene fantastike (Triplanetary), rojen v Sheboyganu v Wisconsinu (r. 1965) B. Traven, (nem?

Alfred Jodl

10. maj Alfred Jodl, nemški general med drugo svetovno vojno (vodja nemškega vrhovnega poveljstva, podpisal brezpogojno nacistično predajo), rojen v Würzburgu, Nemško cesarstvo († 1946)

Ho Ši Minh

19. maj Ho Ši Min [Nguyễn Sinh Cung], veetnamski komunistični revolucionar in predsednik Severnega Vietnama (1946–69), rojen v provinci Nghệ An, Francoska Indokina († 1969)

    Virginia Eames, Ft Davis TX, zabavljač Kurt Edzard, nemški kipar (akti/portreti), rojen v Bremenu, Nemčija († 1972) Dorothy Heyward, ameriška dramatikinja (Porgy), rojena v NYC, New York († 1961) Paul JM Lindemans, flamski kmetijski inženir/avtor Egon Schiele, avstrijski slikar in grafik, rojen v Tulln an der Donau, Avstro-Ogrski imperij († 1918) Georg Wüst, Posen, nemški oceanograf, ki je prvi popolnoma razumel temperaturo, slanost in globoko aktualna struktura Atlantskega oceana Dežela Frank Sherman, ustanovitelj reda DeMolay, rojen v Kansas Cityju v Missouriju († 1959) Hans Marchwitza, nemški pisatelj in komunist, rojen v Scharleyju, Zgornja Šlezija († 1965) ) Earl Roy Curry, verski mislilec in nadzornik templja Kirtland, rojen v Pittsburghu v Pensilvaniji († 1980) Frederick Lewis Allen, ameriški družbeni zgodovinar in urednik revije Harper's, rojen v Bostonu, Massachusetts († 1954) Walter Hasenvlever, nemški pisatelj , rojen v Aachenu (dne 1 940) Arthur W Tedder iz Glenguina, britanski letalski maršal (2. svetovna vojna) Georg Annenkov, ruski/francoski slikar Ossip Zadkine [Zadkin], Russ/francoski kipar (Uničeno mesto) Charles Erwin Wilson, ameriški inženir (predsednik in izvršni direktor družbe General Motors) in politik (minister za obrambo Združenih držav Amerike 1953–57), rojen v Minervi v Ohiu (r. 1961) Frank Forde, 15. predsednik avstralske vlade (najkrajši predsednik vlade v zgodovini Avstralije-8 dni), rojen v Mitchellu v Queenslandu v Avstraliji († 1983) George II, kralj Grčije (1922-1924 in 1935 -1947), rojen v Tatoiju v Grčiji († 1947)

Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy

22. julij Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, ameriški matriarh, mati JFK, RFK & amp Ted, rojena v Bostonu, Massachusetts († 1995)

    Daniel J. Callaghan, ameriški admiral (Medal of Honor), rojen v San Franciscu v Kaliforniji († 1942) Erich Weinert, nemški komunistični pisatelj, rojen v Magdeburgu († 1953) Naum Gabo [Pevsner], ruski/ameriški kipar ( Stillife Flower) Eino Kaila, finski psiholog in filozof, rojen v Alajärviju na Finskem († 1958) Angus L. MacDonald, kanadski politik († 1954) Erich Wichman, nizozemski fašistični slikar/kipar [Lavinia] Marian Fleming Poe, Afroameričan zagovornica v Virginiji, rojena v Warwicku v okrožju v Virginiji († 1974) Elizabeth Bolden, ameriška superstoletnica (najstarejša preverjena oseba na svetu v času njene smrti), rojena v Somervilleu v Tennesseeju († 2006) Elvin M. Jellinek , Ameriški fiziolog in pionir v študiju alkoholizma, rojen v New Yorku, New York Harry Hopkins, ameriški politik, minister za trgovino v skladu s FDR (Loan & amp Lease law), rojen v Sioux Cityju v Iowi († 1946) Stefan Bastyr, Poljak letalec († 1920) Walther Funk, nemški ekonomist in nacistični politik, rojen v Danzkehmenu, K prusko ozemlje, nemško cesarstvo (um. 1960) Yves Alix, francoski slikar in grafik HP Lovecraft, ameriški pisatelj grozljivk (Na gorah norosti, čudne zgodbe), rojen v Providenceu, Rhode Island († 1937) Floyd Henri Allport, ameriški psiholog in sociolog, rojen v Milwaukeeju , Wisconsin († 1979) Jean Rhys [Ella Gwendolyn Rees Williams], britanski pisatelj (Voyage in the Dark), rojen v Roseauju, Dominika († 1979) Man Ray, ameriški umetnik in fotograf (Dada), rojen v Philadelphiji, Pennsylvania (umrl 1976)

Polkovnik Sanders

9. september Polkovnik Harland Sanders, ameriški ustanovitelj Kentucky Fried Chicken, rojen v Henryvilleu, Indiana († 1980)


7. Bitka pri izboklini (1965)

Izdelano leta 1965, Bitka pri izboklini je interpretacija slavne bitke med drugo svetovno vojno leta 1945 po Warner Bros. Poleg očitnih netočnosti glede tankov in opreme, ki se uporabljata na obeh straneh (značilen ameriški M47 Patton je bil uporabljen za predstavitev nemških tankov King Tiger), je tudi filmski prikaz boja zelo netočen.

Ključni element začetnega uspeha napada v Ardenih je bilo nevihtno in poletno vreme, ki je negativno vplivalo na zračno premoč zavezniških sil in Nemcem omogočilo delovanje. Kljub temu so mnoge bitke prikazane v Bitka pri izboklini so popolnoma brez snega. Še več, odvijajo se na ravnem in ravnem terenu - za razliko od gozdov Ardennes, kjer je dejansko prišlo do boja.

Film daje tudi vtis, da so Američani žrtvovali tanke, da bi težjim tankom Tiger zmanjkalo goriva. Pravzaprav bi bili nemški tanki izčrpani tudi brez prizadevanj ZDA. Končno so bili vsi ameriški džipi v filmu pravzaprav modeli, zasnovani po vojni.


Dogodki v zgodovini leta 1941

    Druga svetovna vojna: Nemško bombardiranje močno poškoduje katedralo Llandaff v Cardiffu v Walesu Druga svetovna vojna: Ameriška vlada napoveduje svoj program ladijskih ladij Liberty za gradnjo tovornjakov v podporo vojnim prizadevanjem. Kanada in ZDA pridobivajo letalske baze v Newfoundlandu (99 let najema) Italijanska proti ofenziva v Albaniji Ameriški nacionalni kolegijski odbor za nogometna pravila objavlja novo pravilo, ki dovoljuje brezplačno zamenjavo igralcev. čete osvojijo Bardijo v Libiji

Rooseveltove štiri svoboščine

6. januar Ameriški predsednik Franklin Roosevelt med svojim nagovorom o stanju zveze v ZDA govori o svojih štirih svoboščinah (svoboda govora in bogoslužja pred pomanjkanjem in strahom)

Dogodek v Obresti

7. januar Kitajske sile Kuomintanga po ukazu Chiang Kai-sheka odpirajo strel na obkroženo komunistično novo četrto armado pri Maolinu v provinci Anhui in ubili ali ujeli 7000 vojakov

    6.000 Judov, ubitih v pogromu v Bukarešti, Romunija Maiden let z kanadskim vojaškim letalom Avro Lancaster, zgrajenim v Veliki Britaniji, Joseph Kesselring s premiernimi predstavami & quotArsenic & amp Old Lace & quot;

Napad na Pearl Harbor

16. januar Ameriški viceadmiral Bellinger opozarja na napad na Pearl Harbor

    Vojno ministrstvo oblikuje prvo eskadrilo vojaškega letalskega korpusa za črne kadete Chiang Kai-shek razpusti komunistično novo četrto armado, potem ko je incident med novo četrto armado v Maolinu v provinci Anhui med nacionalistično in komunistično vojsko pustil veliko mrtvih v drugi svetovni vojni. ki so jih Britanci sprožili proti Italijanom v vzhodni Afriki Britanska ofenziva v Eritreji Britanske čete zasedajo Kasalaf, sudanski kitajski komunistični voditelji ponovno organizirajo Novo četrto vojsko v nasprotju z ukazom nacionalističnega voditelja Chiang Kai-sheka, da se razpusti 1. protijudovski ukrep v Bolgariji prva komercialna ekstrakcija magnezija iz morske vode, Freeport, Teksas Avstralske in britanske čete napadle Tobruk, Libija Britanski komunistični časopis & quot; Dnevni delavec & quot & quot; prepovedale prvo množično pobijanje Judov v Romuniji Britanske in avstralske čete so zavzele Tobruk od Italijanov, ki so prelomno za NACA (zdaj NASA) Lewisa Raziskovalno središče WOR-AM v Newarku v New Yorku se preseli v NYC Britanski vojaki se odpravijo v Abesinijo

Dogodek v Obresti

25. januar Papež Pij XII povzdigne apostolski vikariat na havajskih otokih v dostojanstvo škofije. Postane rimskokatoliška škofija Honolulu.


Fokker M.16 - Zgodovina

Zapuščina letala Fokker v Zahodni Virginiji

Ker svet praznuje stoletje letenja na motorni pogon, je Zahodna Virginija lahko ponosna, da je sodelovala pri razvoju komercialnega letalstva prek naše povezave s korporacijo Fokker Aircraft Corporation, ki je bila prej v Glen Daleu. V prvih dveh desetletjih po dosežku bratov Wright 17. decembra 1903 je bila velika potiska, da so se po zraku preplavile Amerika in Evropa. En Nizozemec, Anthony Fokker, je bil tako uspešen, da je ob 25. obletnici prvega leta v Kitty Hawku prvo komercialno letalo, zgrajeno v Zahodni Virginiji, priletelo iz Fokkerjeve tovarne Glen Dale in odplulo v zgodovino letalstva.

13. decembra 1928 je nebo nad okrožjem Marshall videlo prvo Fokkerjevo letalo, zgrajeno v Zahodni Virginiji, na prvo potovanje. Pilotiral ga je kapitan Grisson E. Haynes, glavni testni pilot družbe Fokker, v spremstvu H. G. Snyderja, inženirskega inšpektorja, zaposlenega v družbi Pan American Airways, kupcu letala.

Let je izviral iz travnatega letališča na bregovih reke Ohio, ki meji na tovarno Fokker. Moške ekipe so odprle vrata v slogu harmonike na severnem koncu tovarne in letalo so vlekli na dnevno svetlobo. Vžig treh motorjev je proizvedel značilen nihajoč zvok iz skupne moči 1.275 konjskih moči. Kapitan Haynes je s svojimi lastnimi močmi odpeljal plovilo na južni rob letališča, kjer je opravil preglede pred letom, in ob štirih z nizkim soncem na zahodnem obzorju je novo letalo steklo po neravni stezi in se elegantno povzpel v zrak nad Glen Dale. Čudovito škrobno belo plovilo se je zlahka nagnilo levo nad reko Ohio in se vzpenjalo navzgor, dokler ni doseglo višino 4000 čevljev.

Tistim na tleh so zbirajoči se jantarjevi žarki sončnega zahoda rumeno obarvali belo, ki se je pojavilo ob tankem modrem nebu. Po vrnitvi letala na travnato vzletno -pristajalno stezo 30 minut kasneje je kapitan Haynes iz okna v pilotski kabini izjavil: "Ravnala je odlično." Vsi zaposleni so bili pri roki, več sto gledalcev ob sosednjih železniških tirih pa je pozdravilo uspeh. Štiri dni pozneje, 17. decembra, ob 25. obletnici leta bratov Wright v Kitty Hawku, je kapitan Haynes pilotiral letalo iz Glen Dale in ga dostavil družbi Pan American Airways v New Yorku s kratkim postankom v Washingtonu, D. C.

Veličastna zračna ladja, imenovana Fokker F-10, je bila v celoti ročno izdelana in je bila zasnovana za prevoz 12 potnikov v udobju zasebnega letalskega salona. , "Razen motorjev, koles, pnevmatik in instrumentov, so bili vsi deli letal izdelani v tovarni Glen Dale." Kot delavec za les v oddelku za montažo kril Young pravi, da je ogromno krilo Fokker F- 10 letal je bilo v celoti izdelano iz lesa. Listi vezanega lesa z debelo debelino so bili zlepljeni skupaj in oviti okoli špirovcev, lutnjastih reber v votlem jedru krila. Izkušeni delavci so oblikovali letalski profil z ravninami za obdelavo lesa, da bi izklesali dvostranski kot, ki se od središča nagiba navzgor. Natančnost tega dela so izmerili pri enaintridesetih sekundah palca.

Krila so bila pritrjena na trup trupa, izvenkrmni motorji pa so bili pritrjeni na odseke javorjevega bloka, vgrajene v krilo iz vezanega lesa. Letalo F-10 je uporabljalo tri motorja Wasp Pratt in Whitney, 450 KM, izračunana za doseganje potovalne hitrosti 125 km / h pri 4000 čevljih. Obremenitev z gorivom 900 litrov je omogočila doseg 600 milj v 4,75 urah pri 60 litrih na uro na motor. V svoji biografiji Leteči Nizozemec Anthony Fokker navaja, da je za krila dajal prednost lesu, ker je bilo pilotu ali mehaniku lažje popraviti ne glede na to, kje bo letalo morda moralo pristati. Leseno krilo je mogoče hitro popraviti, medtem ko kovinsko lahko zahteva več dni zamude.

Trup je bil prekrit z raztegnjeno laneno tkanino, prevlečeno s posebno pigmentirano barvo. V oddelku za montažo prevlek v tovarni Glen Dale so posebej usposobljene ženske ekipe krojile in šivale tkanino tako, da se popolnoma prilega trupu. F-10 naj bi dolga leta postal "delovni konj" letalske industrije.

Prvo letalo, zgrajeno v Glen Daleu, je bilo poslano v Key West na Floridi, da je letelo s potniki in pošto v prvi komercialni letalski liniji med ZDA in Kubo. 25-letni Juan Trippe, Yale 1920, je ustanovil Pan American Airways. Juan Trippe je z denarjem, posojenim od sošolcev, ki so ga podpirali, izkoristil tržno nišo, ki jo je ustvarila Prepoved, in bogatil s potniki, ki so leteli na Kubo, kjer zakonov "suhega" ni bilo. Trippe je reinvestiral svoj zaslužek in nenehno nadgrajeval svojo floto letal, ki so letalske poti razširile po vsej Južni Ameriki po koordinatah, ki jih je preiskal Lindbergh. Trippe je vzpostavil vseživljenjsko prijateljstvo s Charlesom Lindberghom, ki se je v Havani po njegovih turnejah po Mehiki in na Karibih leta 1928 dogovoril, da bo preizkusil novi Pan Am Fokker.

Dne 7. oktobra 1927 so časopisi Ohio Valley s krepkimi naslovi objavili, da bo milijonski projekt letala zaposlil 1.000 v Glen Dale. V ureditvi, ki je odražala takrat aktualno teorijo gospodarskega razvoja, so lokalni poslovni in politični voditelji ponudili zemljišča in postavili stavbe, če bi Fokker gradil letala v dolini Ohio. Noben državni ali zvezni denar ni bil vpleten, saj je bil ta podvig odvisen od vere in kapitala lokalnih vlagateljev. V zameno naj bi Fokkerjeva tovarna lokalno zaposlila od 400 do 600 in ustvarila letalski center s šolo za usposabljanje pilotov. Pod okriljem Ohio Valley Industrial Corp. se je skupina za kapitalske naložbe, ki jo sestavljajo HC Ogden, DA Burt, WP Wilson in RE Nelson iz Wheelinga, pridružila Evan G. Roberts, John A. Bloyd, James M. Sanders in John J. Clarke iz Moundsvillea za predlagano podjetje. Ustanovljeni sta bili dve ločeni družbi: ena za fizični obrat in ena za proizvodno dejavnost.

S slavnostnimi zdravicami so narasli pričakovanja, da bodo okrožja Marshall in Ohio postala mogočna kot Detroit ali Akron. Podprti z ugledom in tržnostjo Fokkerjevega izdelka svetovnega razreda, so podjetja Wheeling z navdušenjem zbrala 100.000 USD za zavarovanje te možnosti. Vodilni v podjetju Moundsville so hitro zaostali za programom kapitalskih naložb, ki ga je podal Evan G. Roberts, in v devetih dneh zbrali 80.000 dolarjev. V kombinaciji z izdajo obveznic v višini 70.000 dolarjev so imeli vlagatelji 260.000 dolarjev, potrebnih za izgradnjo tovarne.

Njihova korporacija je bila pooblaščena kot Industrial Land & Building Company s 300.000 USD kapitala. "Ustanovitelji so bili: P. Wilson, Lee C. Paull in Thomas Carnahan, vsi iz Wheelinga, in John A. Bloyd in James A. Sigafoose, ugledni poslovneži iz Moundsvillea. Druga družba je bila organizirana tako, da je obrat opremil s proizvodno opremo." in materiali. Z delniško ponudbo je bilo zbranih pol milijona dolarjev, do 7. decembra 1927 pa je borznoposredniška družba Hazlett in Burt poročala, da so bile prodane vse zaloge novega podjetja Fokker Aircraft Company.

Treba je opozoriti, da so septembra 1927 vodilni v podjetju Wheeling objavili sponzorstvo letalske družbe aviatrix Ruth Elder v njeni ponudbi za podvajanje Lindberghovega čezatlantskega leta. Elder in njen navigator George Haldeman sta 12. oktobra zapustila Roosevelt Field v New Yorku v monoplanu Stinson z imenom American Girl, The City of Wheeling. Slabo vreme je par umaknilo s poti in zmanjkalo je goriva, zaradi česar so pustolovci morali z letalom zapustiti letalo v oceanu blizu Azorov. Rešeni so bili, in čeprav niso dosegli enega cilja, so njihovi podporniki Wheelinga šteli misijo za uspeh, saj so svetovno pozornost opozorili na dolino Ohio. Ti pogumni vlagatelji iz Wheelinga so izgubili 35.000 dolarjev, ko je Elderjevo nezavarovano letalo potonilo v oceanu, toda njihova pripravljenost tvegati lastno bogastvo za napredek letalstva je verjetno nastala zaradi Fokkerjevega zanimanja za umestitev tovarne letal v bližini Jekleno mesto

Novem obratu so januarja 1928 podrli tla: do zgodnje pomladi je bilo nasuto betonsko tla, opečne stene so bile skoraj dokončane, izvajalec pa je vgradil velika tovarniška okna, pod katerimi bi montažne ekipe kmalu začele z delom. Anthony Fokker je pogosto obiskoval gradbišče, da bi nadzoroval delo. Aprila 1928 je Fokker z novim letalskim letalom Super Universal F-10 poletel v Moundsville in ga pristal na Langin Fieldu, ki se nahaja eno miljo po reki od skoraj dokončane tovarne. To letalo z 12 potniki je bilo zgrajeno v objektu Fokker's Teterboro, NJ, njegov prihod pa je bil zelo velik. Delničarji in njihove družine so imeli deset kratkih brezplačnih letov. Poročila kažejo, da je letalo tisti dan 15 -krat vzletelo in pristalo.

Ena izmed srečnih letalskih potnic tega dne je bila 95 -letna Alice Sigafoose Littell, ki zdaj živi v paviljonu Helfer v Moundsvilleu. Ko smo jo prosili, naj komentira dogodek, se gospa Littell spominja: "Vožnja z letalom je potekala tako hitro, da se ne spomnim veliko podrobnosti, razen da sem bil prvič, kot najstnik pa je bilo strašljivo in vznemirljivo." Littell dodala: "Moja mama je bila bolni v bolnišnici in vztrajala je, da z očetom Jamesom Sigafoosom ne letiva hkrati. V primeru nesreče bi morali iti ločeno

Konec jeseni 1928, približno ob istem času, ko je prvo letalo prišlo s tekoče linije, se je General Motors Corporation na skrivaj pogajal za nadzor letala Fokker. Nihče na lokalni ravni ni vedel za to, dokler novica ni bila objavljena 17. maja 1929, dan po končani dokumentaciji. V transakciji je Anthony Fokker prejel 6,5 milijona dolarjev v gotovini, "veliko število patentov", in nadzor nad McCook Fieldom v Daytonu v Ohiu. General Motors je z nakupom ‚enega vodilnih podjetij za proizvodnjo letal na svetu‘ dal avtomobilski velikanu takojšnjo pariteto s Ford Motor Company v letalskem poslu.

V svoji reviji iz leta 1931 je Anthony Fokker navedel, da je 40 -odstotni kontrolni delež v svoji ameriški družbi prodal družbi General Motors v pričakovanju, da bo General Motors vso svojo ogromno težo postavil za letalo Fokker. Dan po objavi združitve se je delnica Fokker Aircraft prodajala za 68 USD, vendar je v 10 dneh ustvarjanje dobička prilagodilo ceno na 47 USD.

Združitev z GM ni imela takojšnjega učinka na operacijo Glen Dale. Leta 1929 je tovarna v povprečju izdelovala eno letalo vsakih 12 dni. Po poročanju lokalnega tiska so bila naročila za nova letala stalna. V določenem trenutku je bilo po naročilu najmanj deset letal s predvideno prodajo sto F-10 letno. Uradniki General Motorja niso videli verjetnosti, da bi naročila prenehali v naslednjih petih letih. Primarni odjemalci so bili Universal Aviation, Pan American Airways, Western Air Express in Transcontinental Air Transport, zadnja dva sta se združila in oblikovala TWA. V Glen Daleu so izdelali tudi številna letala za ameriško vojsko, ki predstavljajo različne modele, vključno z dvojnimi in trojnimi motornimi zasledovalnimi letali.

Niz spektakularnih uspehov v letih 1927 in 1928 je močno povečalo zaupanje lokalnih vlagateljev. Poveljnik Richard Byrd je pilotiral trimotor Fokkerja, "Josephine Ford", na 1360 milj dolgem pohodu čez severni pol, kar dokazuje zanesljivost zasnove. Byrdov čezatlantski let leta 1927 v Fokkerju v Ameriki je prispeval k podobi hitrosti in varnosti. Leta 1928 je Tihi ocean osvojil vojski Fokker C-2, ki je letel med Oaklandom in Oahujem, pilot iz Seattla po imenu Kingsford-Smith se je odpravil na let okoli sveta v Fokkerju "Južni križ" in Amelia Earhart je postala prva ženska, ki je letela Atlantik v svojem Fokkerjevem trimotorju, "Prijateljstvo"

Anthony Fokker je bil spreten poslovnež, vendar ga ni zanimalo upravljanje tal v tovarni. Njegova strast do letalstva je bila v inženiringu in ustvarjanju boljših letal. Ker se je zaupanje potrošnikov v varnost letenja povečalo, je največja stranka Fokkerja Western Air Express oddala naročilo za največje letalo v Ameriki. F-32, izdelan v tovarni Fokker v New Jerseyju, je prevažal 32 potnikov in je vseboval štiri sobe, dve stranišči, radio, oddajnik in sprejemnik, shrambo, mehke preproge, ročno slikanje na stenah in spalnih ležiščih. 17. maja 1930 kaže, da je ta štirikolesno plavajoča palača z razponom kril 99 čevljev in višino 16 čevljev po letu iz Detroita pristala na Fokker Fieldu v Glen Daleu. Vzletno-pristajalna steza, široka 225 čevljev in 3000 metrov dolga, je komaj sprejela velikansko ladjo.

Ker se je ugled Fokkerja glede zanesljivosti povečeval, so bili drugi konkurenti, kot so Boeing, Douglas, Curtis in Ford, s konkurenco prisiljeni še bolj napredovati na področju letalstva. Fokkerjev vpliv je bil kot strelovod. Opozoril je na potencial komercialnih potniških letal z razvojem F-32.

Ob stalni ponudbi naročil so uradniki v tovarni Glen Dale izrazili načrte za širitev. Letališče je doživelo tudi nekatere spremembe, saj so parcelo, ki ločuje Fokker Field in Langin Field, razčistili, da bi ustvarili miljo dolgo vzletno-pristajalno stezo. Zaposleni so se organizirali, da bi ustanovili bejzbolsko in nogometno ekipo Fokker Eagles, ko so svoje poslovne mišice napeli proti "Fostorijam" in drugim lokalnim tekmecem na peskanju. Na žalost so bili polovični dnevi leta 1929 kratkotrajni. (Prvi znak, da se bodo težave začele, je prišel, ko je cena pšenice padla pod en dolar na bušel. V kmetijskih skupnostih so sledili osamljeni bankroti, kar je povzročilo večje krče na Wall Streetu.) Žalostni propad celotnega proizvodnega sektorja ameriške industrije v v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja so se Fokkerjeve sanje uresničile. Končno je bilo v tovarni Glen Dale proizvedenih 58 potniških letal in številna vojaška letala, ki so nahranila apetit nastajajoče industrije, ki se bori za razvoj novih tehnologij.

Obvestilo, da se bo objekt Glen Dale zaprl, je prišlo 30. septembra 1931 po pogumnem poskusu, da ostane solventen. Razlogi za njegov upad so dvojni, toda borzni zlom oktobra 1929 je bil glavni dejavnik izgube prve letalske družbe Zahodne Virginije. (Po mnenju zgodovinarjev Georgea Tindalla in Davida Shi, ki sta v svoji knjigi America A Narrative History pisala v svoji knjigi America A Narrative History, je bančna kriza nastala kot posledica uprave Hardinga, Coolidgea in Hooverja. Po nasvetu Coolidgejevega finančnega ministra Andrewa Mellona, te zaporedne uprave so odpravile regulativni nadzor, ki sta ga uvedla napredni upravi Teddyja Roosevelta in Woodrowa Wilsona. , so se olajšali predpisi o velikih podjetjih, zvišale carine na uvoz in znižala davek na dohodek tistih, ki so zaslužili, s 65% na 20%. "Do leta 1928 je bila tretjina nacionalnega bogastva v rokah 5% Harding, Coolidge in Hoover so se v zvezi s trgovino držali laissez-faire filozofije in zaupali, da se bo trg popravil. , je to storil zaradi prevelike ponudbe denarja, zmanjšanja povpraševanja potrošnikov, presežnih zmogljivosti v proizvodnem sektorju in pohlepa, ki ga predstavljajo vlagatelji, ki kupujejo špekulativne delnice z maržo.) Delnice Fokkerja so, tako kot vse druge panoge, padle in padle. Fokkerjeva vrednost je pred padcem zdrsnila s 54 dolarjev na 22 dolarjev do konca leta.

Zaradi zaostankov naročil je operacija Glen Dale trajala vse leto 1930, vendar so "sodobna odpuščanja" leta 1931 povzročila prekinitev dejavnosti, potem ko je General Aviation Corporation kupila Fokker Aircraft in preselila proizvodno opremo in usposobljene delavce iz Glen Dalea v Baltimore. Obljubo o letalskem centru, milijonsko plačo in upanje številnih vlagateljev je zasenčila vse večja kuga gospodarskega propada. Celotna država se je zaradi "nenadne brezposelnosti milijonov ljudi" borila "pijan". Prodaja vozovnic za letalske prevoze je presahnila, niz letalskih nesreč na zahodni obali pa je dodatno oslabil zaupanje potrošnikov.

The tragic death on March 31, 1931 of Notre Dame s renowned football coach, Knute Rockne, while riding in a Fokker F-10 may have signaled the end of an era of wood-winged aircraft. Certainly, the crash that killed Rockne also was the last straw for Glen Dale s airplane factory. The airplane in which he was riding, though it had been in service for only 18 months, was a product of the Glen Dale plant.

In that accident, the main wing separated from the fuselage of the aircraft. Later analysis found that the pilot attempted to raise the nose of the aircraft too quickly when he encountered the poorly understood phenomenon of wind sheer. In the immediate aftermath of the tragedy, however, Fokker s competitors, including Henry Ford, seized upon the national feeling of shock and dismay to erode Fokker s reputation and lay blame on his construction techniques. Even before investigators had determined the cause of the accident, Ford testified in hearings on Capitol Hill against composite construction airplanes. An advocate of all-metal aircraft, he argued that the time had come for the government to focus its support on all-metal airplanes, such as those made by his company.

The lasting legacy of Fokker s Glen Dale operation has both national and statewide significance. Anthony Fokker s airplanes regularly left his West Virginia facility for delivery to Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago, Texas, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C., New York and Florida. The aircraft Fokker supplied to Pan Am opened South America to air travel, linking the two continents of the western hemisphere in a more immediate way than had ever been achieved. Larger aircraft opened the doors to cargo transport with airmail paving the way.

West Virginia s contribution to the development of aviation resides in the fact that all of the objectives of advancing the field of commercial aviation were met through the faith of local investors, the labor of local workers and the confidence of national companies.

These photos were submitted by James R. Wells, whose father, Robert H. Wells, worked at Fokker after graduating from Moundsville High School in 1928. Robert was a member of the Fokker basketball team in 1930.


Fokker M.16 - History

By Bob Cashner

Norway had been able to avoid the massive bloodletting of World War I entirely and fervently hoped to steer clear of World War II as well through a policy of strict neutrality. Having seen the fate of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, by 1940 many of Europe’s smaller and traditionally neutral nations were struggling to strengthen and modernize their military defenses. Norway had waited until almost the last minute before beginning a rearmament program and was ill prepared militarily to even enforce its own neutrality in Norwegian waters.

Tonnage wise, in 1940 the Royal Norwegian Navy was roughly only one quarter of the size it had been in 1914. It had only two capital ships, the armored coastal defense ships Norge and Eidsvold, whose keels had been laid before the turn of the century. The handful of new vessels available were mostly small patrol boats better suited to fisheries protection and enforcement than naval warfare, and there had been no money in the defense budget for the fleet to actually put to sea and conduct maneuvers since 1918.

In theory, with a full-scale mobilization and call up of the reserves, Norway could field an army of six divisions, but in peacetime each division had only a single active-duty battalion. The country did have a long tradition of universal conscription young men coming of age had to serve a stint in the military. The basic training period, however, was the shortest of any nation in Europe, only 72 days. Some older reservists who had met their military obligation during the 1920s had received only 48 days of training. Even if there were time available to mobilize all the reserves, weapons and equipment were often both old and in short supply. The Royal Norwegian Army of 1940 did not have a single tank, antitank gun, or even hand grenades there were not even enough steel helmets or rifle bayonets to go around in the case of full mobilization.

The Army Air Corps had a grand total of 62 aircraft, of which fewer than 20 could charitably be considered modern the backbone of its fighter strength consisted of a dozen British-made Gloster Gladiator biplanes stationed near Oslo, and the most numerous attack plane was the 1924-vintage Fokker C.V.E., a wood-framed, fabric-covered biplane right out of World War I. The Royal Norwegian Navy had an additional 40 or so aircraft, but they were all of makes, models, and vintages that made the Army Air Corps seem state of the art. Norway had recently purchased some brand new L/60 40mm Bofors guns from neighboring Sweden, a grand total of eight of them. The vast majority of the country’s quite limited antiaircraft defenses consisted of aging World War I-vintage 75mm guns in fixed positions and of dubious value against modern, high-speed aircraft. The dozen 75mm luftvernkanon m/16 guns still in use in 1940, for instance, were a 1916 design originally designated as “antiballoon guns.”

So, when Allied and Axis nations alike looked at Norway’s 1,000-plus miles of strategic coastline and her vital rail link to the Swedish iron ore mines at the port of Narvik, neither were too concerned about the military repercussions of violating the country’s neutrality. The proposed joint British and French expeditionary force supposedly intended to go to the aid of Finland during the 1939-1940 Winter War was little more than a thinly veiled scheme to occupy Narvik and the Swedish iron mines. The Germans had torpedoed ships in Norwegian territorial waters. The British responded by chasing down and boarding the German merchantman Altmark right in front of a Norwegian patrol boat.

The Nazi German invasion of Norway was in fact hastened along by German Chancellor Adolf Hitler’s fears that the British were going to land troops there. German preparations for the invasion and occupation of Denmark and Norway were already being developed under the codename of Operation Weserübung.

Even though the Norwegian military was not well prepared, the Germans knew they had to strike hard and fast to achieve an early knockout blow. Hitler was already planning to invade France and the Low Countries, so the Germans could not afford to have men and material tied up in a lengthy campaign in Norway. If Norway determined to fight and was able to fully mobilize, the country’s rough, mountainous terrain offered a great many natural defensive positions, and given time the Norwegian military would be joined by British and French reinforcements. Thus, a major part of Operation Weserübung called for special detachments of troops to capture the Norwegian king, the prime minister and his cabinet, and leading members of the Storting (Parliament) within the first few hours of the invasion. It was hoped that the captured leaders, surprised and disheartened, would quickly capitulate and the Nazi conquest of Norway would become a fait accompli before the British and French could even respond.

Operation Weserübung, as it pertained to Norway, was a particularly audacious and far-reaching plan, almost to the point of recklessness Adolf Hitler chortled that it was the “sauciest” military operation in history. It required a very tight timetable and close coordination between all three branches of the German military, the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), and Luftwaffe (Air Force). To achieve complete surprise, all the German landings would have to occur simultaneously over nearly 1,000 miles of coastline. Seaborne landings were slated for the Norwegian capital of Oslo and the important coastal cities of Bergen, Egersund, Kristiansand, Trondheim, and Narvik, while two airborne assaults would seize vital airfields at Stavanger and Fornebu. Wesertag (Weser Day) was finally set for April 9, 1940, and H-hour was 0500.

Bound for the Norwegian capital of Oslo was Warship Group 5, composed of German Navy vessels under overall command of Rear Admiral Oskar Kummetz, whose flagship was the brand new heavy cruiser Blücher. This group also included the Deutschland-class heavy cruiser Lützow, a 14,000-ton vessel sometimes termed a “pocket battleship,” sporting a main armament of six 11-inch (280mm) guns in two triple turrets, and the older 1920s-vintage light cruiser Emden, armed with eight 6-inch (150mm) guns. The remainder of Group 5 consisted of three torpedo boats, eight minesweepers, and two whalers. These ships carried a landing force of just over 2,000 troops from the 163rd Infantry and 3rd Mountain Divisions. An additional 23 merchant ships were standing by in German ports or at sea awaiting the word to bring in 14,000 more troops and their vehicles and heavy weapons once the Norwegian defensive installations along the Oslofjord were cleared.

The heavy cruiser Blücher was the pride of Nazi Germany’s new Kriegsmarine, one of its finest and newest ships, built in repudiation of the Treaty of Versailles and at a cost of nearly 86 million Reichsmarks. The second of five Admiral Hipper-class heavy cruisers, Blücher was commissioned into the fleet in September 1939, even as the panzers were rolling into Poland, and she had not finished her sea trials until April 5, 1940. Grossing 18,000 tons fully loaded, she was more than 675 feet long and had a beam of 72 feet. Her three Blohm & Voss 132,000 shaft horsepower steam turbines could drive her at a top speed of 32 knots, and she was crewed by 1,382 officers and men. Her main armament consisted of eight 8-inch (203mm) SK C/34 rifled guns mounted in twin turrets fore and aft. Secondary armament included a dozen 4.1-inch (105mm) guns, a dozen 37mm, eight 20mm light antiaircraft guns, and six 21-inch torpedo tubes port and starboard. For protection she carried three inches of belt armor, up to two inches of deck armor, and more than four inches of turret armor. Blücher normally carried three Arado Ar-196 float planes for reconnaissance and gunnery spotting, but on April 9 only two of the aircraft were aboard, one on the launching catapult and one in the hangar immediately aft of the funnel.

In addition to being Admiral Oskar Kummetz’ flagship, Blücher also carried Maj. Gen. Erwin Engelbrecht, commanding officer of the 163rd Infantry Division, and Maj. Gen. Wilhelm Sussmann, commander of the Luftwaffe’s ground organization for Norway. The 528 troops aboard included the special detachments designated to capture the Norwegian king and key government leaders, as well as the nation’s gold reserves. Stored topside above the main armored deck were light field guns and some 31 tons of munitions belonging to these ground troops.

The sea approach to Oslo is via the 100-kilometer-long Oslofjord, a restricted, winding, and often narrow waterway that affords ships little room to maneuver. Norwegian coastal fortifications dotted the shores and islands of Oslofjord for its entire length collectively, these defenses were known as Oslofjord festning, or Oslofjord Fortress. A natural defensive bottleneck forms in the fjord at Drøbak Sound, where the channel briefly narrows down to a little over a quarter of a mile wide, and the Drøbak narrows are the dividing line between what is known as Inner and Outer Oslofjord. Two small islands at the narrows were home to Oscarsborg Fortress, which would play a large role in the events of April 9, 1940.

Luck initially seemed to be with the vessels of Warship Group 5 as they penetrated the outer mouth of Oslofjord late on the night of April 8, 1940 a thick fog hung over the water, concealing the German ships. Rear Admiral Kummentz had issued orders for his ships to hold their fire unless otherwise ordered by the flagship and to ignore any warning shots from the Norwegian defenders.

At around 2300 hours, the Royal Norwegian Navy patrol boat Pol III, a small former whaler with a crew of 15 and armed only with a single 76mm gun, came across the wakes of Warship Group 5 and began to follow them. She was discovered by the German torpedo boat Albatross, which closed on the Pol III and ordered the crew at gunpoint not to use their radio transmitter. Captain Leif Welding-Olsen refused and became the first Norwegian military casualty of World War II. In the tense situation in the fog, the two ships collided, the smaller Pol III taking the lion’s share of damage as she fired a single warning shot and then launched one white and two red flares, the warning signal for enemy ships in Oslofjord.

Albatross backed off and took her under fire, immediately knocking out her sole gun. The crew abandoned ship. Captain Welding-Olsen had lost both his legs, and, seeing the lifeboat was already overloaded, bade his men farewell and rolled himself overboard. Coastwatchers and another small Norwegian patrol boat radioed warnings to Oslo.

Alerted by Pol III’s flares, the Norwegian battery on Rauoy Island spotted Warship Group 5 and fired a blank warning round and then five live rounds from its 150mm guns. The latter shots were fired in anger, but in the fog and darkness Rauoy’s outdated fire control and sighting systems did not prove up to the task. The shells fell so far astern of the Kriegsmarine warships that the Germans actually assumed all six shots had been blanks. Fort Bolaerne also fired a warning shot that went unheeded.

After this brief flurry of fire, Warship Group 5 disappeared into the mist. The Germans were still on schedule and had suffered no damage. At 2345, the flotilla halted briefly as landing parties were put aboard six of the minesweepers to capture Forts Rauoy and Bolaerne and the small Norwegian naval post at Horten, from the rear. The bulk of the warships then proceeded farther up the fjord.

By 0415 hours on the morning of April 9, Warship Group 5 was approaching the Drøbak narrows and Oscarsborg Fortress. By at least one account, German charts listed the old fort as a museum rather than an active coastal defense site. Originally completed in 1855 on South Kaholmen Island, the brick and mortar structure was named after the visiting Swedish-Norwegian King Oscar I. It had been modernized toward the end of the 19th century. In 1879, an underwater barrier was completed that restricted the passage of large, deep-draft ships to the eastern channel of the fjord. In 1893, the new Main Battery armament, three Krupp Model 1891 11-inch (280mm) L/11.2 coastal guns, was purchased from Germany and installed. While cranes were originally unloading the Krupp guns from their ship for installation in the fortress, one of the massive 28-ton cannons had accidentally been dropped into the fjord. After being fished out of the water, the gun had been christened “Moses” and the other two guns in the battery were then named “Aaron” and “Joshua.”

Since the battery was constructed prior to the age of air power, the Krupp guns were mounted in open-topped barbettes their concrete and earthen embankments could only protect the weapons from the flat-trajectory direct fire of enemy ships.

Just as important as the Main Battery to the events of that fateful morning was the Torpedo Battery on tiny North Kaholmen Island, which had been completed in 1901. Situated entirely underground, the interior of the battery had been carved out of the island’s granite bedrock and featured three interior elevators that launched torpedoes underwater via concrete tunnels. The above-ground concrete slits that allowed aiming of the fire control mechanisms were well camouflaged by hedges, and this battery was one of the few Norwegian installations that was completely unknown to German intelligence. The battery’s nine 17.7-inch (450mm) diameter Whitehead torpedoes had been manufactured in Fiume in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1900. They were cold-running torpedoes that used a 3-cylinder reciprocating engine that ran off compressed air with a speed of 27 knots and a contact-fused 220-pound explosive warhead. Although the weapons were tested at intervals over the years, no one was absolutely sure how well or even if they would still work if fired in anger.

Lastly, two fortifications on the east shore of the fjord opposite Oscarsborg were under the command of Captain Vagn Enger. Situated atop a hill overlooking the fjord, Kopås Battery had three British-made Model 1899 Armstrong 6-inch (150mm) guns and two searchlights. Much lower and close to the shoreline was Husvik Battery, which had only two old 19th century Cockerill-Nordenfelt Quick-Firing 6-pounder (57mm) mine barrier protection guns intended for use against small craft attempting to sweep the minefield.

When fully manned, the combined defensive fortifications throughout Oslofjord Fortress should have had a total garrison of 1,433 enlisted men and 210 officers. On April 9, only 613 men and 83 officers were present. Of the 613 enlisted men, 450 were fresh recruits who were just beginning to undergo their training. The naval minefields had not been deployed because planting the mines was to have been part of the recruits’ training in the near future.

In command of Oscarsborg Fortress was 64-year-old Coastal Artillery Oberst (Colonel) Birger Kristian Eriksen, only six months from retirement. Present for duty under his direct command at the Main Battery were 28 officers and men, but only enough trained artillerymen to man one of the big Krupp guns, which required a crew of 11. Eriksen divided his single gun crew in two then leavened each half with the garrison’s cooks, clerks, and drivers, who had been awakened from their barracks, and a handful of reservists who had shown up on their own initiative. By doing so he was able to fully man two of the main guns, Moses and Aaron, although all three were loaded under his direct supervision.

Colonel Eriksen may not yet have known for certain the nationality of the approaching ships, but he knew they were hostile and that numerous warning shots had already been fired in Outer Oslofjord. If he fired a warning shot of his own, it was doubtful the scratch gun crews could reload the ponderous ancient weapons in time to fire another. He let the approaching ships come to within point-blank range, approximately 1,300 meters, so that there was little chance of missing. The thought that by firing his guns he might well be starting a war must have weighed heavily on his mind. When a junior officer questioned him about his order to commence firing, his famous reply was, “Either I will be decorated or I will be court martialed…. Fire!”

Moses and Aaron spoke, their massive muzzle blasts briefly lighting up the gloom and their heavy booms echoing across the fjord. Aboard Blücher, Captain Kurt Zoepffel recalled, “Suddenly, an ear-splitting roar of thunder rends the air. The glare of the guns pierces the darkness. I can see three flashes simultaneously. We are under fire from two sides the guns seem only 500 yards away. Soon bright flames are leaping from the ship.”

Both shots were hits. The first 562-pound high-explosive shell crashed into Blücher’s forward superstructure above the bridge, killing and wounding several men. Moments later, the second 280mm round struck Blücher’s seaplane hanger amidships. The Arado seaplane in the hangar and the aircraft on the catapult were fully fueled, and both were almost immediately engulfed in roaring flames as the volatile aviation fuel ignited. This in turn began to explode the army munitions stored on deck, disabling one of Blücher’s portside 4.1-inch guns.

Blücher immediately returned fire with her secondary armament of 4.1-inch guns and light 37mm and 20mm flak batteries. Not believing his improvised gun crews could manage to reload Moses and Aaron under fire, Colonel Eriksen ordered his men to simply take cover. There was no reprieve for Blücher, however. In response to the Main Battery firing, the Kopas and Husvik Batteries on the east shore of the fjord opened fire as well. Situated on the high ground, Kopas’ three 6-inch Armstrong guns delivered plunging fire onto Blucher’s decks. Most of the shells failed to penetrate Blücher’s deck armor, but the repeated strikes created chaos. The munitions stored on deck began to explode, igniting more fires a starboard 4.1-inch gun was knocked out, massive power failures flickered through the ship, and rudder control from the helm was damaged. Blücher took a total of 13 hits from the 150mm guns and 30 from the rapid-fire 6-pounders. The 57mm guns of Husvik Battery had to be abandoned by the Norwegian gun crews as Blücher passed, her flak guns firing directly into the shoreside weapons pits.

Following Blücher 600 yards astern, Lützow immediately opened fire toward the Norwegian shore batteries with her 5.9-inch secondary batteries and began to swing her forward 11-inch turret onto the target. As she did so, three 150mm shells from Kopas Battery struck her in rapid succession. One scored a direct hit on “A” turret, wounding several sailors and putting the turret out of action. Another impacted the ship’s sickbay, killing two men and wounding many others and starting a fire. Lützow also took several hits from the rapid-fire 57mm guns of Husvik Battery and was being raked by machine-gun fire from shore even as her captain and crew observed the massive explosions and sheets of flame erupting from Blücher ahead.

Captain August Thiele ordered the pocket battleship to withdraw, forcing Emden to avoid a collision. Although Lützow’s crew quickly extinguished her fires and soon had two out of the three 11-inch guns in “A” turret operating again, the fog did not allow them to impact the fate of Blücher.

When the Norwegian guns had initially opened fire, Captain Zoepffel aboard Blücher had rung up full speed and steered for the middle of the channel. This soon took the cruiser out of the line of fire from the shore batteries but unknowingly put it square in the sights of the concealed Torpedo Battery. Since the commanding officer of the torpedo battery was on sick leave, a retired senior commander who lived in nearby Drøbak had been given temporary command in March 1940. Sixty-one-year-old Kommandørkaptein (Commander Senior Grade) Andreas Anderssen was the perfect choice he had first served as a young officer on the Torpedo Battery in 1909 and later retired as its commander in 1927, so he knew the weapons and equipment inside and out. The two officers and nine seamen under his command were all longtime reservists who were also knowledgeable and well trained when it came to operating the battery.

Anderssen gave the command to fire two torpedoes, and both of the elderly fish ran straight and true. One hit Blücher forward of amidships and the other toward the stern, rocking the cruiser with two more massive explosions on the port side.

Although she had taken on a 10-degree list and lost steering as her engine rooms began to flood, Blücher was not yet mortally wounded. No longer taking any Norwegian fire, she dropped anchor to keep from drifting into the shoreline as the crew fought to extinguish her fires. The fire in the floatplane hangar, however, had grown to an inferno and spread to several decks below. On deck, the army’s small arms ammunition and grenades were continuously cooking off, scattering the firefighting crews and shredding the fire hoses with shrapnel. The fires exploded four 100-pound bombs in the floatplane hangar, and great clouds of black smoke and hissing steam were gushing from the ship’s funnel and the gaping hole amidships.

At 0530, the fires reached Blücher’s amidships ammunition magazine for 4.1-inch ammunition. The resulting explosion ripped a great hole in her side, ruptured the bulkheads between boiler rooms, and blew open her fuel bunkers, exposing the fuel oil to the raging flames. This damage sounded the proud new cruiser’s death knell. At 0600 the order to abandon ship was given. The Blücher slowly rolled over and sank 22 minutes later. At least 125 of her crew were lost along with 200 of the 528 soldiers in the landing parties.

Still unaware of the hidden underground Torpedo Battery, Captain Thiele of the Lützow believed that the Drøbak Narrows were heavily mined and it was these weapons that had sunk Blücher. He ordered Warship Group 5 back down the fjord, out of range of Oscarsborg’s ancient guns, although Lützow was able to continue firing on the forts with her modern long-range 11-inchers. Instead of being landed directly into Oslo’s harbor as planned, the remaining troops aboard the vessels of Warship Group 5 now had to be landed in the small town of Son, some 25 miles away.

With daylight came the Luftwaffe. Wave after wave of Heinkel He-111 twin-engine bombers swooped over the islands, dropping 440-pound bombs on the fortifications. Two of Norway’s eight new 40mm Bofors guns replied along with a handful of Colt M/29 7.92mm machine guns, but the limited antiaircraft defenses failed to down any German bombers. The skies cleared from noon until 1330 while Lützow returned to bombard the fortress with her 11-inch guns. Afterward, more German planes, including Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive bombers, returned to blast the fort. Oscarsborg Fortress was subjected to aerial bombardment for almost nine hours and was hit with approximately 500 bombs.

Despite the successful resistance of Colonel Eriksen and his men, Oslo was captured before the end of the day on April 9 by German infantry airlifted into Fornebu Airport, which had been captured earlier by paratroopers. After the aerial bombardment and with German troops ashore on both sides of the fjord, Colonel Eriksen decided not to subject his handful of ill-prepared troops to an infantry assault and surrendered Oscarsborg on the morning of April 10.

By sinking Blücher and forcing the remainder of the German task force to land its troops miles from the capital, the Oscarsborg garrison had bought time for the king, prime minister, cabinet, and parliament to be evacuated on a special train from Oslo to Elverum, where the Storting reconvened and vowed to fight. The country’s gold reserves were smuggled out of the capital to the town of Lillehammer.

Instead of handing the Norwegian government a fait accompli, the Germans wound up having to devote further men and resources to a lengthy campaign. With most of the major Norwegian cities in German hands, the Norwegian Army reservists were never able to fully mobilize, but those units that did fought on and were joined by British, French, and Free Polish troops.

In the final reckoning, however, British control of the sea was trumped by German control of the air. The Allies later evacuated their expeditionary forces from Norway, and the last Norwegian Army units laid down their arms on June 9, 1940. The fight for Norway had lasted for two months, longer than the Germans had expected, and the loss of the new Blücher was a severe blow to German prestige.

Author Bob Cashner resides in Philipsburg, Montana. He has previously written for Zgodovina druge svetovne vojne on the Boys Anti-Tank Rifle, War Dogs, and the Japanese knee mortar.


Fokker’s Synchronizing Gear And The Birth of Fighter Planes

The first airplanes to join the First World War were not made for combat. They merely played the role of an observer, scouting enemy positions and movements. Intelligence gathering was essential for warfare, and this new technological innovation made it possible for an observer to look into enemy territory surreptitiously. Predictably, the enemy began doing the same, and soon it became necessary to prevent enemy airplanes from conducting reconnaissance and surveillance.

A British World War One era fighter aircraft. Photo: Keith Tarrier/Shutterstock.com

The first dogfights were made with pistols. The pilot held the airplane’s control stick with one hand and fired off his pistol to the sides with the other. Then a second crew member, the gunner, was added. Sitting on the backseat, his job was to operate a movable machine gun leaving the flying to the pilot. It was German aviator August Euler, who first saw the advantage of a forward-firing gun that could bring down an enemy from behind. Euler patented his design in 1910—four years before war started.

But many senior officers remained skeptical.

The idea of coupling the firing mechanism to the propeller's rotation is an affectation. The objection is the same as to any gun position which is fixed along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft: the pilot is forced to fly directly at the enemy in order to fire. Under certain circumstances this is highly undesirable”, wrote German Major Siegert.

Duel in the air. An artwork that appeared on The Illustrated London News

A British two-seater monoplane fires on a German Taube fighter. Photo: Everett Collection/Shutterstock.com

Nevertheless, airplane designers continued to file patents. In 1914, Swiss engineer Franz Schneider published a patent that could fire through the rotating blades of the propeller. A mechanical feedback system derived from the rotating cam wheel prevented the pilot from squeezing the trigger when the propeller blades were directly in front of the muzzle. The patent attracted little interest and nobody actually tried to build it.

That same year, French engineer Raymond Saulnier also filed patent for a different design. Unlike the Schneider patent design, Saulnier's device was actually built, and may be considered the first practical synchronization gear to be tested. Unfortunately, Saulnier’s design scarcely worked. The machine gun that was used for the firing assembly was found to be unsuitable for the purpose, and the experiments ceased.

The French decided that the only workable solution for now was to fire straight through the propeller and pray for the best. To protect the propeller blades and safely deflect the bullets away, they were fitted with armored plates, and later with armored wedges. The system was crude but it worked. About 75 percent of all rounds fired passed through the propeller without hitting the blades. It was estimated that each blade could take several hits before there was any danger of its failing. However, the wedges diminished the propeller's efficiency, and the considerable force of the impact of bullets on the deflector blades put undesirable stress on the engine's crankshaft.

French pilot Jules Védrines in the cockpit of a Morane-Saulnier airplane in September 1915. The wedge-shaped bullet deflectors is visible on his propeller.

Nevertheless, on 1 April 1915, French pilot Roland Garros made the first successful kill, shooting down a German airplane near Diksmuide, in Belgium. On 15 April, Garros shot down another airplane in Ypres, and an 16th his third kill near Langemark. That same day, Garros’s plane was hit by ground fire and he was forced to land behind German lines. Garros was captured and his airplane was sent for evaluation.

The Germans were impressed by the armored propeller blades and wanted these fitted on their airplanes too. With that in mind, they sent for Dutch aircraft manufacturer Anthony Fokker, whose monoplane the Eindecker, was already doing frontline activity as a scout. But Fokker found the engineering sloppy. 48 hours later, Fokker returned with a better solution—a machine gun whose firing rate was synchronized with the turn of the propeller. It is suspected that Fokker and his engineer Heinrich Lübbe were already working on the synchronization gear before the captured airplane of Roland Garros was brought to him.

Diagram of Anthony Fokker's machine gun synchronization gear.

Unlike many of the earlier designs, which attempted to interrupt the gun when the propeller blades were on the line of fire, Fokker’s system was designed to actively fire the gun. Most important of all, Fokker’s synchronization gear was built and actually fitted to many German Eindeckers. Although in terms of performance, the Eindeckers were unremarkable, they were nevertheless the first true fighter aircraft. German pilots could use the airplane itself as a weapon, aiming the entire aircraft at the target. An aggressive pilot could make long, steep dives, aiming his aircraft at the target, firing a long burst and continuing the dive until well out of range. If the target was not destroyed, the German pilot could climb up again and repeat the process. This maneuver, now common in dogfights, was invented by the German fighter ace Leutnant Max Immelmann.

The exclusive possession of a working gun synchronizer enabled the Germans to gain air superiority over the Allies, shooting down their airplanes in devastating numbers. This period, starting from mid-1915 to mid-1916, came to be known as the “Fokker Scourge” or “Fokker Scare”.

A 3D model of a Fokker Eindecker. Image credit: PNGwing

Germany’s dominance in the sky came to an end by the fall of 1916, with the arrival of technically superior Allied biplanes like the French Nieuport 11 and the British DH-2. The Nieuport was light and nimble, outclassing the Fokker Eindecker in every respect, including speed, climb rate and maneuverability. The Nieuport also carried a forward-firing gun, but it was mounted to fire over the propeller—shooting between the blades still proved to be a hard nut to crack.

The British finally got their hands upon the legendary Eindecker when in April 1916 a German pilot mistakenly landed his airplane on a British airfield. The captured aircraft was found not to have the superior performance it had been credited with. The British copied the synchronization gear and the first Allied aircraft with the ability to shoot between the blades was born.

The dominance of the air continued to swing back and forth between the Germans and the Allies until the end of the war in 1918. Towards the end of the conflict, the German briefly led a second Fokker Scourge, with their formidable Fokker D.VII, but even it could not prevent Germany's inevitable defeat. Nevertheless, the airplane was so feared by the Allies that it was the only weapon mentioned in the Treaty of Versailles, specifically requiring the Germans to surrender all D.VIIs to the Allies.

The usefulness of synchronization gears disappeared altogether when jet engines eliminated the propeller in fighter planes.


Reference:
#  John Lienhard, Fokker’s Interrupter Mechanism, Engines of our Ingenuity
# Coronado Eagle, Volume 8, Number 36, 3 September 1997
# Joe Yoon, Fighter Guns & Synchronization Gear, Aerospace Web
# Harry Woodman, Early Aircraft Armament.
# Wikipedia